19 research outputs found

    Puumala Hantavirus Infections Show Extensive Variation in Clinical Outcome

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    The clinical outcome of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection shows extensive variation, ranging from inapparent subclinical infection (70‚Äď80%) to severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), with about 0.1% of cases being fatal. Most hospitalized patients experience acute kidney injury (AKI), histologically known as acute hemorrhagic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Why this variation? There is no evidence that there would be more virulent and less virulent variants infecting humans, although this has not been extensively studied. Individuals with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles B*08 and DRB1*0301 are likely to have a severe form of the PUUV infection, and those with B*27 are likely to have a benign clinical course. Other genetic factors, related to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene and the C4A component of the complement system, may be involved. Various autoimmune phenomena and Epstein-Barr virus infection are associated with PUUV infection, but hantavirus-neutralizing antibodies are not associated with lower disease severity in PUUV HFRS. Wide individual differences occur in ocular and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations and in the long-term consequences of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Numerous biomarkers have been detected, and some are clinically used to assess and predict the severity of PUUV infection. A new addition is the plasma glucose concentration associated with the severity of both capillary leakage, thrombocytopenia, inflammation, and AKI in PUUV infection. Our question, ‚ÄúWhy this variation?‚ÄĚ remains largely unanswered

    A Genome-Wide Association Study of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

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    dentification of sequence variants robustly associated with predisposition to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of DKD in type 2 diabetes (T2D) using eight complementary dichotomous and quantitative DKD phenotypes: the principal dichotomous analysis involved 5,717 T2D subjects, 3,345 with DKD. Promising association signals were evaluated in up to 26,827 subjects with T2D (12,710 with DKD). A combined T1D+T2D GWAS was performed using complementary data available for subjects with T1D, which, with replication samples, involved up to 40,340 subjects with diabetes (18,582 with DKD). Analysis of specific DKD phenotypes identified a novel signal near GABRR1 (rs9942471, P = 4.5 x 10(-8)) associated with microalbuminuria in European T2D case subjects. However, no replication of this signal was observed in Asian subjects with T2D or in the equivalent T1D analysis. There was only limited support, in this substantially enlarged analysis, for association at previously reported DKD signals, except for those at UMOD and PRKAG2, both associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. We conclude that, despite challenges in addressing phenotypic heterogeneity, access to increased sample sizes will continue to provide more robust inference regarding risk variant discovery for DKD.Peer reviewe