606 research outputs found

    Is the pseudogap a topological state?

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    We conjecture that the pseudogap is an inhomogeneous condensate above the homogeneous state whose existence is granted by topological stability. We consider the simplest possible order parameter theory that provides this interpretation of the pseudogap and study its angular momentum states. The normal state gap density, the breaking of the time reversal symmetry and the checkerboard pattern are naturally explained under this view. The pseudogap is a lattice of skyrmions and the inner weak local magnetic field falls below the experimental threshold of observation given by NMR/NQR and őľ\muSR experiments.Comment: 12 pages, six figures, one tabl

    Topologically stable gapped state in a layered superconductor

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    We show that a layered superconductor, described by a two-component order parameter, has a gapped state above the ground state, topologically protected from decay, containing flow and counter flow in the absence of an applied magnetic field. This state is made of skyrmions, breaks time reversal symmetry and produces a weak local magnetic field below the present threshold of detection by őľ\muSR and NMR/NQR. We estimate the density of carriers that condense into the pseudogap.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    The Principle Of Local Rotational Invariance And The Coexistence Of Magnetism, Charge And Superconductivity

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    We propose a macroscopic description of the superconducting state in presence of an applied external magnetic field in terms of first order differential equations. They describe a corrugated two-component order parameter intertwined with a spin-charged background, caused by spin correlations and charged dislocations. The first order differential equations are a consequence of a Weitzenb\"ock-Liechnorowitz identity which renders a SUL(2) \otimes UL(1) invariant ground state, based on (L) local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry. The proposal is based on a long ago developed formalism by \'Elie Cartan to investigate curved spaces, viewed as a collection of small Euclidean granules that are translated and rotated with respect to each other. \'Elie Cartan's formalism unveils the principle of local rotational invariance as a gauge symmetry because the global SU(2) invariance of the order parameter is turned local by the interlacement of spin and charge to pairing.Comment: 19 pages, 3 figure

    Shape-resonant superconductivity in nanofilms: from weak to strong coupling

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    Ultrathin superconductors of different materials are becoming a powerful platform to find mechanisms for enhancement of superconductivity, exploiting shape resonances in different superconducting properties. Here we evaluate the superconducting gap and its spatial profile, the multiple gap components, and the chemical potential, of generic superconducting nanofilms, considering the pairing attraction and its energy scale as tunable parameters, from weak to strong coupling, at fixed electron density. Superconducting properties are evaluated at mean field level as a function of the thickness of the nanofilm, in order to characterize the shape resonances in the superconducting gap. We find that the most pronounced shape resonances are generated for weakly coupled superconductors, while approaching the strong coupling regime the shape resonances are rounded by a mixing of the subbands due to the large energy gaps extending over large energy scales. Finally, we find that the spatial profile, transverse to the nanofilm, of the superconducting gap acquires a flat behavior in the shape resonance region, indicating that a robust and uniform multigap superconducting state can arise at resonance.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to the Proceedings of the Superstripes 2016 conferenc

    Local hydrological conditions influence tree diversity and composition across the Amazon basin

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    Tree diversity and composition in Amazonia are known to be strongly determined by the water supplied by precipitation. Nevertheless, within the same climatic regime, water availability is modulated by local topography and soil characteristics (hereafter referred to as local hydrological conditions), varying from saturated and poorly drained to well-drained and potentially dry areas. While these conditions may be expected to influence species distribution, the impacts of local hydrological conditions on tree diversity and composition remain poorly understood at the whole Amazon basin scale. Using a dataset of 443 1-ha non-flooded forest plots distributed across the basin, we investigate how local hydrological conditions influence 1) tree alpha diversity, 2) the community-weighted wood density mean (CWM-wd) ‚Äď a proxy for hydraulic resistance and 3) tree species composition. We find that the effect of local hydrological conditions on tree diversity depends on climate, being more evident in wetter forests, where diversity increases towards locations with well-drained soils. CWM-wd increased towards better drained soils in Southern and Western Amazonia. Tree species composition changed along local soil hydrological gradients in Central-Eastern, Western and Southern Amazonia, and those changes were correlated with changes in the mean wood density of plots. Our results suggest that local hydrological gradients filter species, influencing the diversity and composition of Amazonian forests. Overall, this study shows that the effect of local hydrological conditions is pervasive, extending over wide Amazonian regions, and reinforces the importance of accounting for local topography and hydrology to better understand the likely response and resilience of forests to increased frequency of extreme climate events and rising temperatures

    Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

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    Geographic patterns of tree dispersal modes in Amazonia and their ecological correlates

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    Aim: To investigate the geographic patterns and ecological correlates in the geographic distribution of the most common tree dispersal modes in Amazonia (endozoochory, synzoochory, anemochory and hydrochory). We examined if the proportional abundance of these dispersal modes could be explained by the availability of dispersal agents (disperser-availability hypothesis) and/or the availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits (resource-availability hypothesis). Time period: Tree-inventory plots established between 1934 and 2019. Major taxa studied: Trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ‚Č•‚ÄČ9.55‚ÄČcm. Location: Amazonia, here defined as the lowland rain forests of the Amazon River basin and the Guiana Shield. Methods: We assigned dispersal modes to a total of 5433 species and morphospecies within 1877 tree-inventory plots across terra-firme, seasonally flooded, and permanently flooded forests. We investigated geographic patterns in the proportional abundance of dispersal modes. We performed an abundance-weighted mean pairwise distance (MPD) test and fit generalized linear models (GLMs) to explain the geographic distribution of dispersal modes. Results: Anemochory was significantly, positively associated with mean annual wind speed, and hydrochory was significantly higher in flooded forests. Dispersal modes did not consistently show significant associations with the availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits. A lower dissimilarity in dispersal modes, resulting from a higher dominance of endozoochory, occurred in terra-firme forests (excluding podzols) compared to flooded forests. Main conclusions: The disperser-availability hypothesis was well supported for abiotic dispersal modes (anemochory and hydrochory). The availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits seems an unlikely explanation for the distribution of dispersal modes in Amazonia. The association between frugivores and the proportional abundance of zoochory requires further research, as tree recruitment not only depends on dispersal vectors but also on conditions that favour or limit seedling recruitment across forest types

    Geography and ecology shape the phylogenetic composition of Amazonian tree communities

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    Aim: Amazonia hosts more tree species from numerous evolutionary lineages, both young and ancient, than any other biogeographic region. Previous studies have shown that tree lineages colonized multiple edaphic environments and dispersed widely across Amazonia, leading to a hypothesis, which we test, that lineages should not be strongly associated with either geographic regions or edaphic forest types. Location: Amazonia. Taxon: Angiosperms (Magnoliids; Monocots; Eudicots). Methods: Data for the abundance of 5082 tree species in 1989 plots were combined with a mega-phylogeny. We applied evolutionary ordination to assess how phylogenetic composition varies across Amazonia. We used variation partitioning and Moran\u27s eigenvector maps (MEM) to test and quantify the separate and joint contributions of spatial and environmental variables to explain the phylogenetic composition of plots. We tested the indicator value of lineages for geographic regions and edaphic forest types and mapped associations onto the phylogeny. Results: In the terra firme and v√°rzea forest types, the phylogenetic composition varies by geographic region, but the igap√≥ and white-sand forest types retain a unique evolutionary signature regardless of region. Overall, we find that soil chemistry, climate and topography explain 24% of the variation in phylogenetic composition, with 79% of that variation being spatially structured (R2^{2}‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ19% overall for combined spatial/environmental effects). The phylogenetic composition also shows substantial spatial patterns not related to the environmental variables we quantified (R2^{2}‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ28%). A greater number of lineages were significant indicators of geographic regions than forest types. Main Conclusion: Numerous tree lineages, including some ancient ones (>66‚ÄČMa), show strong associations with geographic regions and edaphic forest types of Amazonia. This shows that specialization in specific edaphic environments has played a long-standing role in the evolutionary assembly of Amazonian forests. Furthermore, many lineages, even those that have dispersed across Amazonia, dominate within a specific region, likely because of phylogenetically conserved niches for environmental conditions that are prevalent within regions
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