284 research outputs found

    New Elemental Abundances for V1974 Cygni

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    We present a new analysis of existing optical and ultraviolet spectra of the ONeMg nova V1974 Cygni 1992. Using these data and the photoionization code Cloudy, we have determined the physical parameters and elemental abundances for this nova. Many of the previous studies of this nova have made use of incorrect analyses and hence a new study was required. Our results show that the ejecta are enhanced, relative to solar, in helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium and iron. Carbon was found to be subsolar. We find an ejected mass of ~2x10e-4 solar masses. Our model results fit well with observations taken at IR, radio, sub-millimeter and X-ray wavelengths.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Synthesis of intermediate-mass elements in classical novae: from Si to Ca

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    Thermonuclear runaways driven by accretion into degenerate white dwarf cores are the source that power classical nova outbursts. In this paper, we identify the dominant nuclear paths involved in the synthesis of intermediate-mass elements, from Si to Ca, during such violent events. New evolutionary sequences of 1.35 Mo ONe novae have been computed, using updated nuclear reaction rates. The main nuclear activity in this region is powered by the leakage from the NeNa-MgAl region, where the activity is confined during the early stages of the explosion. We discuss the critical role played by 30P(p,gamma) in the synthesis of nuclear species beyond sulfur and point out the large uncertainty that affects its rate, which has dramatic consequences for studies of nova nucleosynthesis in the Si-Ca mass region.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. 23 pages (aastex), 6 Postscript figure

    Abundance Analysis of the Extremely Fast ONeMg Novae V838 Herculis and V4160 Sagittarii

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    V838 Her and V4160 Sgr were two of the fastest classical novae ever observed, exhibiting light curve declines of 2 mag in less than 2 days. Both novae also showed strong neon emission lines, indicative of an outburst occurring on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf. Being the brighter of the two, V838 Her has an extensive set of X-ray to radio observations obtained during its first year after outburst. V4160 Sgr has a more modest set of ultraviolet and optical spectra, which show it to be similar to V838 Her, not just in its light curve evolution but also in its spectral development. The observed attributes imply that these novae occurred on extremely massive white dwarfs. This paper uses the Cloudy photoionization code to fit multiple epochs of emission line spectra to determine the elemental abundances of the ejecta of V838 Her and V4160 Sgr

    Nucleosynthesis in ONeMg Novae: Models versus Observations to Constrain the Masses of ONeMg White Dwarfs and Their Envelopes

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    Nucleosynthesis in ONeMg novae has been investigated with the wide ranges of three parameters, i.e., the white dwarf mass, the envelope mass at ignition, and the initial composition. A quasi-analytic one-zone approach is used with an up-to-date nuclear reaction network. The nucleosynthesis results show correlation with the peak temperatures or the cooling timescales during outbursts. Among the combinations of white dwarf and envelope masses which give the same peak temperature, the explosion is more violent for a lower white dwarf mass owing to its smaller gravitational potential. Comparison of the nucleosynthesis results with observations implies that at least two-third of the white dwarf masses for the observed ONeMg novae are ‚ČÉ1.1M‚äô\simeq 1.1 M_\odot, which are significantly lower than estimated by previous hydrodynamic studies but consistent with the observations of V1974 Cyg. Moreover, the envelope masses derived from the comparison are ‚Č≥10‚ąí4M‚äô\gtrsim 10^{-4} M_\odot, which are in good agreement with the ejecta masses estimated from observations but significantly higher than in previous hydrodynamic studies. With such a low mass white dwarf and a high mass envelope, the nova can produce interesting amounts of ő≥\gamma-ray emitters 7^7Be, 22^{22}Na, and 26^{26}Al. We suggest that V1974 Cyg has produced 22^{22}Na as high as the upper limit derived from the COMPTEL survey. In addition, a non-negligible part of the Galactic 26^{26}Al may originate from ONeMg novae, if not the major contributors. Both the future INTEGRAL survey for these ő≥\gamma-ray emitters and abundance estimates derived from ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared spectroscopies will impose a severe constraint on the current nova models.Comment: 21 pages, 23 figures, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 523, No.1, September 20, 1999; preprint with embedded images can be obtained from http://th.nao.ac.jp/~wanajo/journal/onenova.p

    Spectroscopic analysis of DA white dwarfs from the McCook & Sion catalog

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    For some years now, we have been gathering optical spectra of DA white dwarfs in an effort to study and define the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. However, we have recently expanded this survey to include all the DA white dwarfs in the McCook & Sion catalog down to a limiting visual magnitude of V=17.5. We present here a spectroscopic analysis of over 1000 DA white dwarfs from this ongoing survey. We have several specific areas of interest most notably the hot DAO white dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti instability strip, and the DA+dM binary systems. Furthermore, we present a comparison of the ensemble properties of our sample with those of other large surveys of DA white dwarfs, paying particular attention to the distribution of mass as a function of effective temperature.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figures, to appear in Journal of Physics Conference Proceedings for the 16th European White Dwarf Worksho

    The early X-ray emission from V382 Velorum (=Nova Vel 1999): An internal shock model

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    We present the results of ASCA and RXTE observations of the early X-ray emission from the classical nova V382 Velorum. Its ASCA spectrum was hard (kT~10 keV) with a strong (10**23 cm**-2) intrinsic absorption. In the subsequent RXTE data, the spectra became softer both due to a declining temperature and a diminishing column. We argue that this places the X-ray emission interior to the outermost ejecta produced by V382 Vel in 1999, and therefore must have been the result of a shock internal to the nova ejecta. The weakness of the Fe K alpha lines probably indicates that the X-ray emitting plasmas are not in ionization equilibrium.Comment: 16 pages (including 4 figures), accepted for publication in Ap

    Time to onset of cannabidiol (CBD) treatment effect in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Analysis from two randomized controlled trials

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    OBJECTIVE: To estimate time to onset of cannabidiol (CBD) treatment effect (seizure reduction and adverse events [AEs]), we conducted post hoc analyses of data from two randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trials, GWPCARE3 (NCT02224560) and GWPCARE4 (NCT02224690), of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. METHODS: Patients received plant-derived pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex, 100¬†mg/ml oral solution) at 10¬†mg/kg/day (CBD10; GWPCARE3) or 20¬†mg/kg/day (CBD20; both trials) or placebo for 14¬†weeks. Treatment started at 2.5¬†mg/kg/day for all groups and reached 10¬†mg/kg/day on Day 7 and 20¬†mg/kg/day (CBD20 and matching placebo only) on Day 11. Percentage change from baseline in drop seizure frequency was calculated by cumulative day (i.e., including all previous days). Time to onset and resolution of AEs were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, 235 patients received CBD (CBD10 [GWPCARE3 only], n¬†=¬†67; CBD20 [pooled GWPCARE3&4], n¬†=¬†168) and 161 received placebo. Mean (range) age was 15.3¬†years (2.6-48.0). Patients had previously discontinued a median (range) of six (0-28) antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and were currently taking a median of three (0-5) AEDs. Differences in drop seizure reduction between placebo and CBD emerged during the titration period and became nominally significant by Day 6 (p¬†=¬†.008) for pooled CBD treatment groups. Separation between placebo and CBD in ‚Č•50% responder rate emerged by Day 6. Onset of the first reported AE occurred during the titration period in 45% of patients (CBD10, 46%; CBD20, 52%; placebo, 38%). In patients with AEs, resolution occurred within 4¬†weeks of onset in 53% of placebo and 39% of CBD patients and by end of study in 63% of placebo and 61% of CBD patients. SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment effect (efficacy and AEs) of CBD may occur within 1 week of starting treatment. Although AEs lasted longer for CBD than placebo, most resolved within the 14-week period

    A New 17F(p,gamma)18Ne Reaction Rate and Its Implications for Nova Nucleosynthesis

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    Proton capture by 17F plays an important role in the synthesis of nuclei in nova explosions. A revised rate for this reaction, based on a measurement of the 1H(17F,p)17F excitation function using a radioactive 17F beam at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, is used to calculate the nucleosynthesis in nova outbursts on the surfaces of 1.25 and 1.35 solar mass ONeMg white dwarfs and a 1.00 solar mass CO white dwarf. We find that the new 17F(p,gamma)18Ne reaction rate changes the abundances of some nuclides (e.g., 17O) synthesized in the hottest zones of an explosion on a 1.35 solar mass white dwarf by more than a factor of 10,000 compared to calculations using some previous estimates for this reaction rate, and by more than a factor of 3 when the entire exploding envelope is considered. In a 1.25 solar mass white dwarf nova explosion, this new rate changes the abundances of some nuclides synthesized in the hottest zones by more than a factor of 600, and by more than a factor of 2 when the entire exploding envelope is considered. Calculations for the 1.00 solar mass white dwarf nova show that this new rate changes the abundance of 18Ne by 21%, but has negligible effect on all other nuclides. Comparison of model predictions with observations is also discussed.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Modeling of the Super-Eddington Phase for Classical Novae: Five IUE Novae

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    We present a light curve model for the super-Eddington luminosity phase of five classical novae observed with IUE. Optical and UV light curves are calculated based on the optically thick wind theory with a reduced effective opacity for a porous atmosphere. Fitting a model light curve with the UV 1455 \AA light curve, we determine the white dwarf mass and distance to be (1.3 M_sun, 4.4 kpc) for V693 CrA, (1.05 M_sun, 1.8 kpc) for V1974 Cyg, (0.95 M_sun, 4.1 kpc) for V1668 Cyg, (1.0 M_sun, 2.1 kpc) for V351 Pup, and (1.0 M_sun, 4.3 kpc) for OS And.Comment: 9 pages including 8 figures, to appear in the Astrophysical Journa

    New Low Accretion-Rate Magnetic Binary Systems and their Significance for the Evolution of Cataclysmic Variables

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    Discoveries of two new white dwarf plus M star binaries with striking optical cyclotron emission features from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) brings to six the total number of X-ray faint, magnetic accretion binaries that accrete at rates < 10^{-13} Msun/yr, or <1% of the values normally encountered in cataclysmic variables. This fact, coupled with donor stars that underfill their Roche lobes and very cool white dwarfs, brand the binaries as post common-envelope systems whose orbits have not yet decayed to the point of Roche-lobe contact. They are pre-magnetic CVs, or pre-Polars. The systems exhibit spin/orbit synchronism and apparently accrete by efficient capture of the stellar wind from the secondary star, a process that has been dubbed a ``magnetic siphon''. Because of this, period evolution of the binaries will occur solely by gravitational radiation, which is very slow for periods >3 hr. Optical surveys for the cyclotron harmonics appear to be the only means of discovery, so the space density of pre-Polars could rival that of Polars, and the binaries provide an important channel of progenitors (in addition to the asynchronous Intermediate Polars). Both physical and SDSS observational selection effects are identified that may help to explain the clumping of all six systems in a narrow range of magnetic field strength around 60 MG.Comment: 25 pages, 13 figures, Accepted to Ap
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