10 research outputs found

    The case for offshore wind farms, artificial reefs and sustainable tourism in the French Mediterranean

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    As the French government strives to achieve their offshore renewable energy target, the impact of offshore wind farms on coastal tourism in the Languedoc Rousillon is now being questioned. To assess this issue, a choice experiment was undertaken to elicit tourist preferences for wind turbines at different distances from the shore. We also examined whether potential visual nuisances may be compensated by wind farm associated reef-recreation or by adopting a coherent environmental policy. The findings indicate that age, nationality, vacation activities and their destination loyalty influence attitudes toward compensatory policies. Two policy recommendations are suggested. First, everything else being equal, wind farms should be located 12 km offshore. Second, and alternatively, a wind farm can be located from 5 km and outwards without a loss in tourism revenues if accompanied by a coherent environmental policy and wind farm associated recreational activities.

    To restore or not? A valuation of social and ecological functions of the Marais des Baux wetland in Southern France

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    The Marais des Baux wetland in southern France has for centuries been subject to drainage, almost causing its entire disappearance. With an increasing awareness of wetland ecosystem services, the extensive drainage is being questioned today. To guide policy-makers and landowners in their decision-making, we use a Choice Experiment to elicit the preferences of the general public for potential land use and activity changes in the Marais des Baux. These changes concern wetland restoration, the extent of tree hedges, recreational opportunities, mosquito control and biodiversity.

    Evaluation économique des changements des paysages littoraux : le cas du développement des parcs éoliennes dans le mer Méditerranée

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    Diffusion du document : publique DiplĂŽme : Dr. d'UniversiteThe French government has committed itself to an ambitious target of boosting the offshore wind power capacity to reach 6 GW by 2020. Wind turbines onshore as well as offshore are highly contested on visual grounds. Affected stakeholders, ranging from business and property owners, fishermen and elected municipal planners, fear significant negative economic impacts on their ‘business' or their ‘property'. In the French Mediterranean region of the Languedoc Roussillon, the expectation is that the tourist industry will be chagrined in the presence of an offshore wind farm – giving a windy and cemented image of the region. Since talks began about 10 years ago, on the potential for ‘harvesting' the winds of the Mediterranean Sea, many postulates have been made with regard to the impact on coastal tourism. In particular, resistance mounted when plans to include the Languedoc Roussillon in the 2011 tender for the construction of 2 GW wind power capacity were materialising. In this light, it was considered of pertinence to investigate how offshore wind farms, installed at realistic distances from the coast (5, 8 or 12 km), would affect coastal tourism. Additionally, it was considered of interest to help define strategies that coastal community resort may adopt to boost visiting numbers or profit margins with or without wind farms. To answer these questions a full-scale choice experiment valuation survey with over 350 tourists was undertaken in the summer of 2010 on Languedoc beaches. Our survey results show (in chapter 3) that average visual disamenity costs tends to zero, when an offshore wind farm is installed somewhere between 8 and 12 km from the shore. We also find that there is considerable demand for “sustainable” coastal community resorts that favours local produce, bicycling, public transport, energy and water saving devices. Thus, our estimates show that a wind farm installed 8 km from the shore could be ‘compensated for' through the simultaneous ‘greening' of the coastal community resort. If in addition a wind farm is associated with artificial reefs and recreational user access, our results point to an actual rise in tourist related revenues when the wind farm is located min. 5 km from the coast. The policy recommendation is thus two fold: Everything else equals, a wind farm located 12 km offshore will have no negative incidence on tourism. With simultaneous application of a coherent environmental policy and wind farm associated recreational activities, wind farm siting can be conceived from 5 km and outwards. In a latter stage (chapter 5) we explicit account for the well-established fact that humans' over-estimate losses compared with equal-sized gains, in our econometric estimations. By incorporating so-called gain-loss asymmetry in the utility function, we observe that the WTP to remove wind farms had they already been installed is half the compensation required to accept their presence during a vacation. The disamenity costs associated with wind farm installation are thus of a significantly smaller magnitude had the wind farms already been installed. On the other hand, the welfare benefits associated with eco-efficiency and wind farm associated recreational activities are larger had they already been invigorated. The verdict is that asymmetry should be accounted for, or at least recognised in stated preference valuation studies that simultaneously use utility increasing and utility decreasing attributes. Finally, the thesis highlights (in chapter 4) that it is not only relevant to understand how the tourist industry and Languedoc service sector may be affected by the installation of offshore wind farms. It is similarly relevant to gain an insight into the wider factor governing public acceptance of offshore wind farm projects. In that regard the thesis provides evidence that there has been an excessive and not very constructive focus on NIMBYism as a mean to explain resistance to wind farm proposals. A large range of factors drives preferences for or against the installation of offshore wind farms - these have a direct bearing on the visual evaluation of wind turbines in the seascape. We find that concerns over the efficiency and costliness of wind energy and localized consequences on noisescape, seascape, fauna and flora, exacerbates disamenity costs. Climate change concern and aversion to traditional fuels on the other hand serve to lessen disamenity costs of wind farm installation. Similarly, respondents with a higher education also experiences a smaller disutility costs from the presence of wind turbines. Finally, it is noteworthy that nationality stands out as the single most important socio-demographic determinant of preferences for/against the installation of wind farms. This alerts us about the degree to which nation specific energy policies, social norms, and lobbying may be part of leading to widely divergent evaluations. Conclusively, preferences for the siting of energy producing facilities are inherently and deeply heterogeneous. This heterogeneity can fruitfully be addressed in valuation studies to help design efficient, sustainable policies and define dynamic responses to these.Le gouvernement français s'est engagĂ© sur un ambitieux objectif de dĂ©velopper l'Ă©olien offshore pour atteindre une capacitĂ© de 6 GW d'ici 2020. La construction d'Ă©oliennes terrestres, tout comme les Ă©oliennes offshore, est trĂšs contestĂ©e en raison de leur impact visuel sur le paysage. Dans la rĂ©gion française du Languedoc Roussillon, les acteurs concernĂ©s (industrie touristique, commerces, pĂȘcheurs, Ă©lus locaux), craignent que la construction de parc Ă©oliens offshore aie des effets nĂ©fastes sur le tourisme, en donnant Ă  la rĂ©gion une image industrialisĂ©e et « bĂ©tonnĂ©e ». Jusqu'Ă  prĂ©sent, en mer du Nord, il n'a jamais Ă©tĂ© mis en Ă©vidence que la construction de parcs Ă©oliens offshore ait rĂ©ellement affectĂ© l'attractivitĂ© touristique des cĂŽtes environnantes. On peut se demander si ce constat peut ĂȘtre extrapolĂ© Ă  la cote mĂ©diterranĂ©enne. Depuis une dizaine d'annĂ©es, lorsqu'ont dĂ©butĂ© les dĂ©bats sur la possibilitĂ© d'exploiter les vents mĂ©diterranĂ©ens, beaucoup de prĂ©jugĂ©s sont apparus sur l'impact potentiel nĂ©gatif que cela pourrait avoir sur le tourisme. La rĂ©ticence a d'autant plus augmentĂ© lorsque le Languedoc Roussillon a Ă©tĂ© inclus dans le zonage de l'appel d'offre concernant la construction de 2 GW de parcs Ă©oliens. Il Ă©tait donc pertinent de mener une enquĂȘte auprĂšs des touristes du littoral pour Ă©valuer comment l'installation de parcs Ă©oliens, installĂ©s Ă  des distances rĂ©alistes des cĂŽtĂ©s, pourrait affecter le tourisme balnĂ©aire. Par ailleurs, il Ă©tait Ă©galement intĂ©ressant de proposer des stratĂ©gies que les stations balnĂ©aires pourraient adopter pour augmenter le nombre de touristes et leurs profits, avec ou sans parc Ă©olien. Pour rĂ©pondre Ă  ces questions, une enquĂȘte d'Ă©valuation mobilisant la mĂ©thode des « choice experiment », a Ă©tĂ© rĂ©alisĂ©e durant l'Ă©tĂ© 2010, auprĂšs de plus de 350 touristes, sur les plages languedociennes. Les rĂ©sultats de cette enquĂȘte, prĂ©sentĂ©s au chapitre 3, montrent que les coĂ»ts liĂ©s Ă  la nuisance visuelle s'annulent lorsque le parc Ă©olien est installĂ© Ă  des distances comprises entre 8 et 12 km de la cĂŽte. L'enquĂȘte a Ă©galement mis en Ă©vidence une forte demande pour la mise en place de dĂ©marches Ă©co responsable (favorisant les produits locaux, le vĂ©lo, les transports publics et les Ă©conomies d'eau et d'Ă©nergie) par les stations balnĂ©aires. Ainsi, nos rĂ©sultats montrent que la nuisance vĂ©cue par l'installation d'un parc Ă  8 km de la cote serait compensĂ©e par la mise en place simultanĂ©e d'une « dĂ©marche verte ». Par ailleurs, la construction de rĂ©cifs artificiels associĂ© au parc Ă©olien, qui permettrait l'accĂšs Ă  des loisirs rĂ©crĂ©atifs (plongĂ©e sous marine par ex.) gĂ©nĂ©rerait, d'aprĂšs nos rĂ©sultats, une augmentation des dĂ©penses des touristes, si ce parc Ă©tait installĂ© Ă  une distance d'au moins 5 km de la cĂŽte. De nos rĂ©sultats Ă©mergent deux principaux constats : - L'implantation d'une Ă©olienne Ă  12 km de la cĂŽte, sans aucune Ă©volution de la station par ailleurs, n'aurait pas d'incidence nĂ©gative sur le tourisme. - Si la station balnĂ©aire met simultanĂ©ment en place des actions environnementales et des activitĂ©s rĂ©crĂ©atives, le parc Ă©olien peut alors ĂȘtre conçu Ă  partir d'une distance de 5 km de la cĂŽte. L'Ă©cart entre le Consentement Ă  Payer pour un bien et le Consentement Ă  Recevoir une compensation pour renoncer Ă  ce mĂȘme bien est un phĂ©nomĂšne trĂšs largement mis en Ă©vidence en Ă©conomie de l'environnement. Dans une seconde partie de la thĂšse, nous prenons en compte dans nos estimations Ă©conomĂ©triques cet Ă©cart entre les pertes et des gains dans la fonction d'utilitĂ©. En tenant compte de cette asymĂ©trie, nous estimons une rĂ©duction de moitiĂ© de la nuisance vĂ©cue par rapport aux Ă©oliennes si le parc Ă©olien est dĂ©jĂ  installĂ©. D'un autre cĂŽtĂ©, les bĂ©nĂ©fices liĂ©s aux activitĂ©s rĂ©crĂ©atives et Ă  une dĂ©marche Ă©co responsable sont perçu comme plus Ă©levĂ©s si ces activitĂ©s Ă©taient dĂ©jĂ  mises en place. La thĂšse dĂ©montre Ă©galement la nĂ©cessite de prendre en compte des facteurs globaux influençant l'acceptation publique de ces parcs. Traditionnellement, le syndrome NIMBY , a Ă©tĂ© utilisĂ© comme le composant explicatif principal pour expliquer la rĂ©sistance aux futurs projets de parcs. Cependant, un grand nombre de facteurs influence directement les prĂ©jugĂ©s et donc la « perception visuelle » des parcs Ă©oliens. D'une part, certains facteurs aggravent la nuisance vĂ©cue tels que les prĂ©occupations relatives Ă  l'efficacitĂ© Ă©nergĂ©tique des Ă©oliennes, leur coĂ»t Ă©nergĂ©tique, leurs consĂ©quences en terme de nuisance sonore, leur impact sur le paysage, la faune et la flore locales. D'autre part, des facteurs comme la prĂ©occupation relative au changement climatique associĂ©e et l'aversion pour les Ă©nergies fossiles et le nuclĂ©aire diminuent la nuisance vĂ©cue par rapport aux Ă©oliennes. Les rĂ©pondants qui ont un niveau d'Ă©tudes Ă©levĂ© ont Ă©galement une nuisance vĂ©cue moins importante concernant la prĂ©sence d'Ă©oliennes. Finalement, on remarque que le facteur le plus dĂ©terminant parmi les variables socio dĂ©mographiques impactant sur la position favorable ou non pour la prĂ©sence d'Ă©oliennes est la nationalitĂ© : les ressortissants des pays du nord de l'Europe y sont plus favorables que les français. Cela nous alerte sur l'importance de l'impact des politiques Ă©nergĂ©tiques, des normes sociales et du lobbying sur les Ă©valuations. En conclusion, les prĂ©fĂ©rences pour l'emplacement des sites de production Ă©nergĂ©tiques sont profondĂ©ment hĂ©tĂ©rogĂšnes. Cette hĂ©tĂ©rogĂ©nĂ©itĂ© peut ĂȘtre mise en Ă©vidence par le biais d'Ă©tudes d'Ă©valuation Ă©conomiques et ainsi apporter des rĂ©ponses pertinentes pour la mise en place de politiques efficaces et durables

    A welfare economic valuation of tourist preferences for the siting ofoffshore wind farms : the case of the French Mediterranean

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    Le gouvernement français s'est engagĂ© sur un ambitieux objectif de dĂ©velopper l'Ă©olien offshore pour atteindre une capacitĂ© de 6 GW d'ici 2020. La construction d'Ă©oliennes terrestres, tout comme les Ă©oliennes offshore, est trĂšs contestĂ©e en raison de leur impact visuel sur le paysage. Dans la rĂ©gion française du Languedoc Roussillon, les acteurs concernĂ©s (industrie touristique, commerces, pĂȘcheurs, Ă©lus locaux), craignent que la construction de parc Ă©oliens offshore aie des effets nĂ©fastes sur le tourisme, en donnant Ă  la rĂ©gion une image industrialisĂ©e et « bĂ©tonnĂ©e ». Jusqu'Ă  prĂ©sent, en mer du Nord, il n'a jamais Ă©tĂ© mis en Ă©vidence que la construction de parcs Ă©oliens offshore ait rĂ©ellement affectĂ© l'attractivitĂ© touristique des cĂŽtes environnantes. On peut se demander si ce constat peut ĂȘtre extrapolĂ© Ă  la cote mĂ©diterranĂ©enne. Depuis une dizaine d'annĂ©es, lorsqu'ont dĂ©butĂ© les dĂ©bats sur la possibilitĂ© d'exploiter les vents mĂ©diterranĂ©ens, beaucoup de prĂ©jugĂ©s sont apparus sur l'impact potentiel nĂ©gatif que cela pourrait avoir sur le tourisme. La rĂ©ticence a d'autant plus augmentĂ© lorsque le Languedoc Roussillon a Ă©tĂ© inclus dans le zonage de l'appel d'offre concernant la construction de 2 GW de parcs Ă©oliens.Il Ă©tait donc pertinent de mener une enquĂȘte auprĂšs des touristes du littoral pour Ă©valuer comment l'installation de parcs Ă©oliens, installĂ©s Ă  des distances rĂ©alistes des cĂŽtĂ©s, pourrait affecter le tourisme balnĂ©aire. Par ailleurs, il Ă©tait Ă©galement intĂ©ressant de proposer des stratĂ©gies que les stations balnĂ©aires pourraient adopter pour augmenter le nombre de touristes et leurs profits, avec ou sans parc Ă©olien. Pour rĂ©pondre Ă  ces questions, une enquĂȘte d'Ă©valuation mobilisant la mĂ©thode des « choice experiment », a Ă©tĂ© rĂ©alisĂ©e durant l'Ă©tĂ© 2010, auprĂšs de plus de 350 touristes, sur les plages languedociennes.Les rĂ©sultats de cette enquĂȘte, prĂ©sentĂ©s au chapitre 3, montrent que les coĂ»ts liĂ©s Ă  la nuisance visuelle s'annulent lorsque le parc Ă©olien est installĂ© Ă  des distances comprises entre 8 et 12 km de la cĂŽte. L'enquĂȘte a Ă©galement mis en Ă©vidence une forte demande pour la mise en place de dĂ©marches Ă©co responsable (favorisant les produits locaux, le vĂ©lo, les transports publics et les Ă©conomies d'eau et d'Ă©nergie) par les stations balnĂ©aires. Ainsi, nos rĂ©sultats montrent que la nuisance vĂ©cue par l'installation d'un parc Ă  8 km de la cote serait compensĂ©e par la mise en place simultanĂ©e d'une « dĂ©marche verte ». Par ailleurs, la construction de rĂ©cifs artificiels associĂ© au parc Ă©olien, qui permettrait l'accĂšs Ă  des loisirs rĂ©crĂ©atifs (plongĂ©e sous marine par ex.) gĂ©nĂ©rerait, d'aprĂšs nos rĂ©sultats, une augmentation des dĂ©penses des touristes, si ce parc Ă©tait installĂ© Ă  une distance d'au moins 5 km de la cĂŽte.De nos rĂ©sultats Ă©mergent deux principaux constats :- L'implantation d'une Ă©olienne Ă  12 km de la cĂŽte, sans aucune Ă©volution de la station par ailleurs, n'aurait pas d'incidence nĂ©gative sur le tourisme.- Si la station balnĂ©aire met simultanĂ©ment en place des actions environnementales et des activitĂ©s rĂ©crĂ©atives, le parc Ă©olien peut alors ĂȘtre conçu Ă  partir d'une distance de 5 km de la cĂŽte.L'Ă©cart entre le Consentement Ă  Payer pour un bien et le Consentement Ă  Recevoir une compensation pour renoncer Ă  ce mĂȘme bien est un phĂ©nomĂšne trĂšs largement mis en Ă©vidence en Ă©conomie de l'environnement. Dans une seconde partie de la thĂšse, nous prenons en compte dans nos estimations Ă©conomĂ©triques cet Ă©cart entre les pertes et des gains dans la fonction d'utilitĂ©. En tenant compte de cette asymĂ©trie, nous estimons une rĂ©duction de moitiĂ© de la nuisance vĂ©cue par rapport aux Ă©oliennes si le parc Ă©olien est dĂ©jĂ  installĂ©. D'un autre cĂŽtĂ©, les bĂ©nĂ©fices liĂ©s aux activitĂ©s rĂ©crĂ©atives et Ă  une dĂ©marche Ă©co responsable sont perçu comme plus Ă©levĂ©s si ces activitĂ©s Ă©taient dĂ©jĂ  mises en place.The French government has committed itself to an ambitious target of boosting the offshore wind power capacity to reach 6 GW by 2020. Wind turbines onshore as well as offshore are highly contested on visual grounds. Affected stakeholders, ranging from business and property owners, fishermen and elected municipal planners, fear significant negative economic impacts on their ‘business' or their ‘property'. In the French Mediterranean region of the Languedoc Roussillon, the expectation is that the tourist industry will be chagrined in the presence of an offshore wind farm – giving a windy and cemented image of the region. Since talks began about 10 years ago, on the potential for ‘harvesting' the winds of the Mediterranean Sea, many postulates have been made with regard to the impact on coastal tourism. In particular, resistance mounted when plans to include the Languedoc Roussillon in the 2011 tender for the construction of 2 GW wind power capacity were materialising. In this light, it was considered of pertinence to investigate how offshore wind farms, installed at realistic distances from the coast (5, 8 or 12 km), would affect coastal tourism. Additionally, it was considered of interest to help define strategies that coastal community resort may adopt to boost visiting numbers or profit margins with or without wind farms. To answer these questions a full-scale choice experiment valuation survey with over 350 tourists was undertaken in the summer of 2010 on Languedoc beaches.Our survey results show (in chapter 3) that average visual disamenity costs tends to zero, when an offshore wind farm is installed somewhere between 8 and 12 km from the shore. We also find that there is considerable demand for “sustainable” coastal community resorts that favours local produce, bicycling, public transport, energy and water saving devices. Thus, our estimates show that a wind farm installed 8 km from the shore could be ‘compensated for' through the simultaneous ‘greening' of the coastal community resort. If in addition a wind farm is associated with artificial reefs and recreational user access, our results point to an actual rise in tourist related revenues when the wind farm is located min. 5 km from the coast. The policy recommendation is thus two fold: Everything else equals, a wind farm located 12 km offshore will have no negative incidence on tourism. With simultaneous application of a coherent environmental policy and wind farm associated recreational activities, wind farm siting can be conceived from 5 km and outwards.In a latter stage (chapter 5) we explicit account for the well-established fact that humans' over-estimate losses compared with equal-sized gains, in our econometric estimations. By incorporating so-called gain-loss asymmetry in the utility function, we observe that the WTP to remove wind farms had they already been installed is half the compensation required to accept their presence during a vacation. The disamenity costs associated with wind farm installation are thus of a significantly smaller magnitude had the wind farms already been installed. On the other hand, the welfare benefits associated with eco-efficiency and wind farm associated recreational activities are larger had they already been invigorated. The verdict is that asymmetry should be accounted for, or at least recognised in stated preference valuation studies that simultaneously use utility increasing and utility decreasing attributes

    The case for offshore wind farms, artificial reefs and sustainable tourism in the French mediterranean

    No full text
    As the French government strives to achieve their offshore renewable energy target, the impact of offshore wind farms on coastal tourism in the Languedoc Rousillon is now being questioned. To assess this issue, a choice experiment was undertaken to elicit tourist preferences for wind turbines at different distances from the shore. We also examined whether potential visual nuisances may be compensated by wind farm associated reef-recreation or by adopting a coherent environmental policy. The findings indicate that age, nationality, vacation activities and their destination loyalty influence attitudes towards compensatory policies. Two policy recommendations are suggested. First, everything else being equal, wind farms should be located no closer than 12 km from the shore. Second, and alternatively, a wind farm can be located from 5 km and outwards without a loss in tourism revenues if accompanied by a coherent environmental policy and wind farm associated recreational activities

    Offshore wind farms in the Mediteranean seascape: a tourist appeal or a tourist repellent

    No full text
    In the run-up to a governmental invitation to tender for the construction offshore wind farms in the Languedoc Rousillon, coastal municipalities have been voicing fear about their potential impact on the tourist industry. To understand how offshore wind farms may affect tourism, we conducted a choice experiment with coastal tourists in Languedoc Rousillon. We elicited willingness to pay and willingness to accept compensation for wind turbines at different distances from the shore and examined whether potential visual nuisances may be compensated by associating the wind farm with recreational opportunities (observational boating, diving at artificial reefs and turbine foundations) or by adopting a coherent environmental policy. We show that the compensation required for the visual nuisance depends on the age segment of the tourists, their nationality, their vacation activities and their degree of loyalty to Languedoc Rousillon coastal community resorts. Our policy recommendation is two-fold: Everything else equals, wind farm implantation 12 km offshore is preferable from the viewpoint of favouring the tourist industry. With simultaneous application of a coherent environmental policy and wind farm associated recreational activities, a wind farm can be conceived from 5 km and outwards without a loss in tourist revenues

    To restore or not? A valuation of social and ecological functions of the Marais des Baux wetland in Southern France

    No full text
    International audienceThe Marais des Baux wetland in southern France has for centuries been subject to drainage, almost causing its entire disappearance. With an increasing awareness of wetland ecosystem services, the extensive drainage is being questioned today. To guide policy-makers and landowners in their decision-making, we use a Choice Experiment to elicit the preferences of the general public for potential land use and activity changes in the Marais des Baux. These changes concern wetland restoration, the extent of tree hedges, recreational opportunities, mosquito control and biodiversity. Using a random parameter logit model, we take account of unobserved and observed preference heterogeneity, revealing that demand for a high level of biodiversity is conditional on respondents expressing a high level of environmental concern, and that parenthood raises the WTP for any future management alternative different from the current situation. Further, we find that mosquito control or attachment to the area is essential for support of large-scale wetland restoration. From the perspective of maximising the compensating surplus, the recommendation is to restore the wetland to one third of its original size in conjunction with biological control of mosquitoes, more tree hedgerows and recreational facilities, while increasing efforts to induce higher levels of biodiversity

    To restore or not? A valuation of social and ecological functions of the Marais des Baux wetland in Southern France

    No full text
    The Marais des Baux wetland in southern France has for centuries been subject to drainage, almost causing its entire disappearance. With an increasing awareness of wetland ecosystem services, the extensive drainage is being questioned today. To guide policy-makers and landowners in their decision-making, we use a Choice Experiment to elicit the preferences of the general public for potential land use and activity changes in the Marais des Baux. These changes concern wetland restoration, the extent of tree hedges, recreational opportunities, mosquito control and biodiversity. Using a random parameter logit model, we take account of unobserved and observed preference heterogeneity, revealing that demand for a high level of biodiversity is conditional on respondents expressing a high level of environmental concern, and that parenthood raises the WTP for any future management alternative different from the current situation. Further, we find that mosquito control or attachment to the area is essential for support of large-scale wetland restoration. From the perspective of maximising the compensating surplus, the recommendation is to restore the wetland to one third of its original size in conjunction with biological control of mosquitoes, more tree hedgerows and recreational facilities, while increasing efforts to induce higher levels of biodiversity.Wetlands Valuation Choice Experiment Random parameter logit model Interactions Willingness-To-Pay Marais des Baux
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