1,242 research outputs found

    Single needle hemodialysis : is the past the future?

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    Whereas the usual way to gain access to the vascular bed for hemodialysis is by inserting two needles, an alternative option based on the introduction of only one needle has been available for several decades. Although single needle hemodialysis gradually lost popularity in the early nineties of last century, this option now seems to make a come-back, with the current change in patient mix towards more elderly and cardio-vascular disease and the appearance of more flexible hardware. Single needle hemodialysis offers several advantages, such as the possibility to puncture small or maturing access systems, a decrease in number of punctures with less potential access damage and subsequent complications, the avoidance of central vein catheter use, and an improved quality of life by reducing puncture-related pain, stress and complications. The main drawback is recirculation which however can be overcome (if considered necessary) by making dialysis somewhat longer and in addition has more impact on removal of small water soluble compounds than on clearance of the more toxic difficult to remove solutes (middle molecules and protein bound compounds). Effective dialyzer blood flow with single needle dialysis cannot be much higher than 300 mL/min, which however also offers advantages by making short dialysis sessions less feasible and thus reducing the likelihood of intradialytic blood pressure falls, organ stunning and other negative outcomes of shorter dialysis. Direct outcome comparisons between single and double needle dialysis are not available but indirect data suggest no differences, in as far as efficient enough access perfusion can keep dialyzer blood flow adequate. The single needle method seems especially suited for the elderly and for home hemodialysis. Recent technological improvements have made the system more accessible and adequate, but further studies are needed to assess with modern methodologies the clearance kinetics of these systems, which could emanate in further technological fine-tuning

    The intestine and the kidneys : a bad marriage can be hazardous

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    The concept that the intestine and chronic kidney disease influence each other, emerged only recently. The problem is multifaceted and bidirectional. On one hand, the composition of the intestinal microbiota impacts uraemic retention solute production, resulting in the generation of essentially protein-bound uraemic toxins with strong biological impact such as vascular damage and progression of kidney failure. On the other hand, the uraemic status affects the composition of intestinal microbiota, the generation of uraemic retention solutes and their precursors and causes disturbances in the protective epithelial barrier of the intestine and the translocation of intestinal microbiota into the body. All these elements together contribute to the disruption of the metabolic equilibrium and homeostasis typical to uraemia. Several measures with putative impact on intestinal status have recently been tested for their influence on the generation or concentration of uraemic toxins. These include dietary measures, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and intestinal sorbents. Unfortunately, the quality and the evidence base of many of these studies are debatable, especially in uraemia, and often results within one study or among studies are contradictory. Nevertheless, intestinal uraemic metabolite generation remains an interesting target to obtain in the future as an alternative or additive to dialysis to decrease uraemic toxin generation. In the present review, we aim to summarize (i) the role of the intestine in uraemia by producing uraemic toxins and by generating pathophysiologically relevant changes, (ii) the role of uraemia in modifying intestinal physiology and (iii) the therapeutic options that could help to modify these effects and the studies that have assessed the impact of these therapies

    'Uremic toxin' section in the journal Toxins : a powerful tool to bundle and advance knowledge on uremia

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    In the journal Toxins, a new section has been added to those already included, which will be specifically devoted to uremic toxins.[...

    p-Cresyl sulfate

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    If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden

    Acute kidney injury in critically ill cancer patients : an update

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    Patients with cancer represent a growing group among actual ICU admissions (up to 20 %). Due to their increased susceptibility to infectious and noninfectious complications related to the underlying cancer itself or its treatment, these patients frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). A wide variety of definitions for AKI are still used in the cancer literature, despite existing guidelines on definitions and staging of AKI. Alternative diagnostic investigations such as Cystatin C and urinary biomarkers are discussed briefly. This review summarizes the literature between 2010 and 2015 on epidemiology and prognosis of AKI in this population. Overall, the causes of AKI in the setting of malignancy are similar to those in other clinical settings, including preexisting chronic kidney disease. In addition, nephrotoxicity induced by the anticancer treatments including the more recently introduced targeted therapies is increasingly observed. However, data are sometimes difficult to interpret because they are often presented from the oncological rather than from the nephrological point of view. Because the development of the acute tumor lysis syndrome is one of the major causes of AKI in patients with a high tumor burden or a high cell turnover, the diagnosis, risk factors, and preventive measures of the syndrome will be discussed. Finally, we will briefly discuss renal replacement therapy modalities and the emergence of chronic kidney disease in the growing subgroup of critically ill post-AKI survivors

    Prognostic robustness of serum creatinine based AKI definitions in patients with sepsis: a prospective cohort study

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    Background: It is unclear how modifications in the way to calculate serum creatinine (sCr) increase and in the cut-off value applied, influences the prognostic value of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). We wanted to evaluate whether these modifications alter the prognostic value of AKI for prediction of mortality at 3 months, 1 and 2 years. Methods: We prospectively included 195 septic patients and evaluated the prognostic value of AKI by using three different algorithms to calculate sCr increase: either as the difference between the highest value in the first 24 h after ICU admission and a pre-admission historical (Delta HIS) or an estimated (Delta EST) baseline value, or by subtracting the ICU admission value from the sCr value 24 h after ICU admission (Delta ADM). Different cut-off levels of sCr increase (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mg/dl) were evaluated. Results: Mortality at 3 months, 1 and 2 years in AKI defined as Delta ADM > 0.3 mg/dl was 48.1 %, 63.0 % and 63.0 % vs 27.7 %, 39.8 % and 47.6 % in no AKI respectively (OR(95%CI): 2.42(1.06-5.54), 2.58(1.11-5.97) and 1.87(0.81-4.33); 0.3 mg/dl was the lowest cut-off value that was discriminatory. When AKI was defined as Delta HIS > 0.3 mg/dl or Delta EST > 0.3 mg/dl, there was no significant difference in mortality between AKI and no AKI. Conclusions: The prognostic value of a 0.3 mg/dl increase in sCr, on mortality in sepsis, depends on how this sCr increase is calculated. Only if the evolution of serum creatinine over the first 24 h after ICU admission is taken into account, an association with mortality is found

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates : newly detected uraemic compounds with an impact on leucocyte oxidative burst

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    Background. Dinucleoside polyphosphates (NpnN) have pathophysiologic roles in cardiovascular disease and are newly detected uraemic retention solutes. They were retrieved in human plasma, tissues and cells. Although their impact on several cell systems involved in vascular damage (endothelium, smooth muscle cells and thrombocytes) has been evaluated, their effect on different types of leucocytes has never been studied. Methods. This study evaluates, for the first time, the impact of NpnN on monocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte oxidative burst activity at baseline and after stimulation with N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in whole blood. Diadenosine triphosphate (Ap(3)A) to diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap(6)A) were tested to investigate the effect of the number of phosphate groups on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The effect of the type of nucleoside was evaluated by comparing adenosine guanosine tetraphosphate, diguanosine tetraphosphate, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up(4)A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A). Results. This study demonstrated that lymphocytes are especially susceptible to intracellular diadenosine polyphosphates. Depending on the phosphate chain length, different effects were observed. At baseline and with fMLP Ap(4)A, Ap(5)A and Ap(6)A enhanced lymphocyted-free radical production. In addition, Ap(3)A, Ap(4)A and Ap5A increased PMA-stimulated ROS production in lymphocytes. Monocytes and granulocytes parallel the lymphocyte response albeit with an inhibition of Ap(6)A on granulocytes. Considering NpnN with four phosphate groups, Up(4)A showed the most important stimulatory effects on monocytes and Ap(4)A on lymphocytes. Conclusions. NpnN mainly have a leucocyte-activating impact, most significant for Ap(4)A, considering phosphate chain length, and for Up(4)A, considering the type of nucleosides. These results suggest that the pro-inflammatory effects of NpnN can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, probably in the early stages of chronic kidney disease, but their chemical composition affects their activity
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