1,430 research outputs found

    K+ secretion across frog skin. Induction by removal of basolateral Cl-.

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    Not just fractal surfaces, but surface fractal aggregates: Derivation of the expression for the structure factor and its applications

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    Densely packed surface fractal aggregates form in systems with high local volume fractions of particles with very short diffusion lengths, which effectively means that particles have little space to move. However, there are no prior mathematical models, which would describe scattering from such surface fractal aggregates and which would allow the subdivision between inter- and intraparticle interferences of such aggregates. Here, we show that by including a form factor function of the primary particles building the aggregate, a finite size of the surface fractal interfacial sub-surfaces can be derived from a structure factor term. This formalism allows us to define both a finite specific surface area for fractal aggregates and the fraction of particle interfacial sub-surfaces at the perimeter of an aggregate. The derived surface fractal model is validated by comparing it with an ab initio approach that involves the generation of a "brick-in-a-wall" von Koch type contour fractals. Moreover, we show that this approach explains observed scattering intensities from in situ experiments that followed gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) precipitation from highly supersaturated solutions. Our model of densely packed "brick-in-a-wall" surface fractal aggregates may well be the key precursor step in the formation of several types of mosaic- and meso-crystals

    Capsaicin-Loaded Chitosan Nanocapsules for wtCFTR-mRNA Delivery to a Cystic Fibrosis Cell Line

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    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a lethal hereditary disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene coding for an epithelial chloride channel, is characterized by an imbalanced homeostasis of ion and water transports in secretory epithelia. As the disease is single-gene based, transcript therapy using therapeutic mRNA is a promising concept of treatment in order to correct many aspects of the fatal pathology on a cellular level. Hence, we developed chitosan nanocapsules surface-loaded with wtCFTR-mRNA to restore CFTR function. Furthermore, we loaded the nanocapsules with capsaicin, aiming to enhance the overall efficiency of transcript therapy by reducing sodium hyperabsorption by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Dynamic light scattering with non-invasive back scattering (DLS-NIBS) revealed nanocapsules with an average hydrodynamic diameter of ~200 nm and a Zeta potential of ~+60 mV. The results of DLS-NIBS measurements were confirmed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with multidetection, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the spherical morphology and size range. After stability measurements showed that the nanocapsules were highly stable in cell culture transfection medium, and cytotoxicity was ruled out, transfection experiments were performed with the CF cell line CFBE41o-. Finally, transepithelial measurements with a new state-of-the-art Ussing chamber confirmed successfully restored CFTR function in transfected cells. This study demonstrates that CS nanocapsules as a natural and non-toxic delivery system for mRNA to target cells could effectively replace risky vectors for gene delivery. The nanocapsules are not only suitable as a transcript therapy for treatment of CF, but open aspiring possibilities for safe gene delivery in general
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