1,430 research outputs found

### Not just fractal surfaces, but surface fractal aggregates: Derivation of the expression for the structure factor and its applications

Densely packed surface fractal aggregates form in systems with high local volume fractions of particles with very short diffusion lengths, which effectively means that particles have little space to move. However, there are no prior mathematical models, which would describe scattering from such surface fractal aggregates and which would allow the subdivision between inter- and intraparticle interferences of such aggregates. Here, we show that by including a form factor function of the primary particles building the aggregate, a finite size of the surface fractal interfacial sub-surfaces can be derived from a structure factor term. This formalism allows us to define both a finite specific surface area for fractal aggregates and the fraction of particle interfacial sub-surfaces at the perimeter of an aggregate. The derived surface fractal model is validated by comparing it with an ab initio approach that involves the generation of a "brick-in-a-wall" von Koch type contour fractals. Moreover, we show that this approach explains observed scattering intensities from in situ experiments that followed gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) precipitation from highly supersaturated solutions. Our model of densely packed "brick-in-a-wall" surface fractal aggregates may well be the key precursor step in the formation of several types of mosaic- and meso-crystals

### Capsaicin-Loaded Chitosan Nanocapsules for wtCFTR-mRNA Delivery to a Cystic Fibrosis Cell Line

Cystic fibrosis (CF), a lethal hereditary disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene coding for an epithelial chloride channel, is characterized by an imbalanced homeostasis of ion and water transports in secretory epithelia. As the disease is single-gene based, transcript therapy using therapeutic mRNA is a promising concept of treatment in order to correct many aspects of the fatal pathology on a cellular level. Hence, we developed chitosan nanocapsules surface-loaded with wtCFTR-mRNA to restore CFTR function. Furthermore, we loaded the nanocapsules with capsaicin, aiming to enhance the overall efficiency of transcript therapy by reducing sodium hyperabsorption by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Dynamic light scattering with non-invasive back scattering (DLS-NIBS) revealed nanocapsules with an average hydrodynamic diameter of ~200 nm and a Zeta potential of ~+60 mV. The results of DLS-NIBS measurements were confirmed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with multidetection, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the spherical morphology and size range. After stability measurements showed that the nanocapsules were highly stable in cell culture transfection medium, and cytotoxicity was ruled out, transfection experiments were performed with the CF cell line CFBE41o-. Finally, transepithelial measurements with a new state-of-the-art Ussing chamber confirmed successfully restored CFTR function in transfected cells. This study demonstrates that CS nanocapsules as a natural and non-toxic delivery system for mRNA to target cells could effectively replace risky vectors for gene delivery. The nanocapsules are not only suitable as a transcript therapy for treatment of CF, but open aspiring possibilities for safe gene delivery in general

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### Measurement of the WZ production cross section in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] and 8[Formula: see text] and search for anomalous triple gauge couplings at [Formula: see text].

The WZ production cross section is measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in proton-proton collision data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9[Formula: see text] collected at [Formula: see text], and 19.6[Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. The measurements are performed using the fully-leptonic WZ decay modes with electrons and muons in the final state. The measured cross sections for [Formula: see text] are [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Differential cross sections with respect to the [Formula: see text] boson [Formula: see text], the leading jet [Formula: see text], and the number of jets are obtained using the [Formula: see text] data. The results are consistent with standard model predictions and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings are obtained

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### Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] and impact on parton distribution functions.

Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton [Formula: see text] final state. The [Formula: see text] cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and [Formula: see text] system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured [Formula: see text] cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution

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