757 research outputs found

    The initiation of renal-replacement therapy: just-in-time delivery

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    Acute kidney injury in critically ill cancer patients : an update

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    Patients with cancer represent a growing group among actual ICU admissions (up to 20 %). Due to their increased susceptibility to infectious and noninfectious complications related to the underlying cancer itself or its treatment, these patients frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). A wide variety of definitions for AKI are still used in the cancer literature, despite existing guidelines on definitions and staging of AKI. Alternative diagnostic investigations such as Cystatin C and urinary biomarkers are discussed briefly. This review summarizes the literature between 2010 and 2015 on epidemiology and prognosis of AKI in this population. Overall, the causes of AKI in the setting of malignancy are similar to those in other clinical settings, including preexisting chronic kidney disease. In addition, nephrotoxicity induced by the anticancer treatments including the more recently introduced targeted therapies is increasingly observed. However, data are sometimes difficult to interpret because they are often presented from the oncological rather than from the nephrological point of view. Because the development of the acute tumor lysis syndrome is one of the major causes of AKI in patients with a high tumor burden or a high cell turnover, the diagnosis, risk factors, and preventive measures of the syndrome will be discussed. Finally, we will briefly discuss renal replacement therapy modalities and the emergence of chronic kidney disease in the growing subgroup of critically ill post-AKI survivors

    Prognostic robustness of serum creatinine based AKI definitions in patients with sepsis: a prospective cohort study

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    Background: It is unclear how modifications in the way to calculate serum creatinine (sCr) increase and in the cut-off value applied, influences the prognostic value of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). We wanted to evaluate whether these modifications alter the prognostic value of AKI for prediction of mortality at 3 months, 1 and 2 years. Methods: We prospectively included 195 septic patients and evaluated the prognostic value of AKI by using three different algorithms to calculate sCr increase: either as the difference between the highest value in the first 24 h after ICU admission and a pre-admission historical (Delta HIS) or an estimated (Delta EST) baseline value, or by subtracting the ICU admission value from the sCr value 24 h after ICU admission (Delta ADM). Different cut-off levels of sCr increase (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mg/dl) were evaluated. Results: Mortality at 3 months, 1 and 2 years in AKI defined as Delta ADM > 0.3 mg/dl was 48.1 %, 63.0 % and 63.0 % vs 27.7 %, 39.8 % and 47.6 % in no AKI respectively (OR(95%CI): 2.42(1.06-5.54), 2.58(1.11-5.97) and 1.87(0.81-4.33); 0.3 mg/dl was the lowest cut-off value that was discriminatory. When AKI was defined as Delta HIS > 0.3 mg/dl or Delta EST > 0.3 mg/dl, there was no significant difference in mortality between AKI and no AKI. Conclusions: The prognostic value of a 0.3 mg/dl increase in sCr, on mortality in sepsis, depends on how this sCr increase is calculated. Only if the evolution of serum creatinine over the first 24 h after ICU admission is taken into account, an association with mortality is found
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