13 research outputs found

    CONSTANS and the evolutionary origin of photoperiodic timing of flowering

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    A network of promoting and inhibiting pathways that respond to environmental and internal signals controls the flowering transition. The outcome of this regulatory network establishes, for any particular plant, the correct time of the year to flower. The photoperiod pathway channels inputs from light, day length, and the circadian clock to promote the floral transition. CONSTANS (CO) is a central regulator of this pathway, triggering the production of the mobile florigen hormone FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T) that induces flower differentiation. Because plant reproductive fitness is directly related to its capacity to flower at a precise time, the photoperiod pathway is present in all known plant species. Recent findings have stretched the evolutionary span of this photophase signal to unicellular algae, which show unexpected conserved characteristics with modern plant photoperiodic responses. In this review, a comparative description of the photoperiodic systems in algae and plants will be presented and a general role for the CO family of transcriptional activators proposed.Gobierno de Andaluc√≠a P08‚ÄźAGR‚Äź03582Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci√≥n CSIC‚Äź200920I181, BIO2007‚Äź6183

    Determination of Soluble Sugars in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves by Anion Exchange Chromatography

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    Determination of soluble sugars is basic for the study of carbon metabolism in plants. Soluble sugar quantitation can be achieved by enzymatic methods implying different coupled reactions. Here we describe a simple method that allows rapid determination of the most abundant soluble sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) in Arabidopsis leaves by anion exchange chromatography. We have applied this method to study the levels of soluble sugars during the photoperiodic transition to flowering (Ortiz-Marchena et al., 2014).Espa√Īa, MINECO projects CSD2007-00057, BIO2008-02292, and BIO2011-28847-C02-00Espa√Īa, Junta de Andaluc√≠a P06-CVI-01450 and P08-AGR-0358

    Purification of Starch Granules from Arabidopsis Leaves and Determination of Granule-Bound Starch Synthase Activity

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    Starch constitutes the most important carbon reserve in plants and is composed of branched amylopectin and linear amylose. The latter is synthesized exclusively by the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS, EC 2.4.1.21). Here we report a readily reproducible, specific and highly sensitive protocol, which includes the isolation of intact starch granules from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and the subsequent determination of GBSS activity. We have applied this method to study GBSS activity in diurnal cycles in vegetative growth and during the photoperiodic transition to flowering in Arabidopsis (Tenorio et al., 2003; Ortiz-Marchena et al., 2014).Espa√Īa,MINECO CSD2007-00057, BIO2008-02292, and BIO2011-28847-C02-00Espa√Īa, Junta de Andaluc√≠a P06-CVI-01450 and P08-AGR-0358

    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases are required for period maintenance of the circadian clock at high temperature in Arabidopsis

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    Protein ubiquitylation participates in a number of essential cellular processes including signal transduction and transcription, often by initiating the degradation of specific substrates through the 26S proteasome. Within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) not only help generate and maintain the supply of free ubiquitin monomers, they also directly control functions and activities of specific target proteins by modulating the pool of ubiquitylated species. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) belong to an enzymatic subclass of DUBs, and are represented by three members in Arabidopsis, UCH1, UCH2 and UCH3. UCH1 and UCH2 influence auxin-dependent developmental pathways in Arabidopsis through their deubiquitylation activities, whereas biological and enzymatic functions of UCH3 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis UCH3 acts to maintain the period of the circadian clock at high temperatures redundantly with UCH1 and UCH2. Whereas single uch1, uch2 and uch3 mutants have weak circadian phenotypes, the triple uch mutant displays a drastic lengthening of period at high temperatures that is more extreme than the uch1 uch2 double mutant. UCH3 also possesses a broad deubiquitylation activity against a range of substrates that link ubiquitin via peptide and isopeptide linkages. While the protein target(s) of UCH1-3 are not yet known, we propose that these DUBs act on one or more factors that control period length of the circadian clock through removal of their bound ubiquitin moieties, thus ensuring that the clock oscillates with a proper period even at elevated temperature

    New challenges in microalgae biotechnology

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    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage.Espa√Īa, MINECO BFU2010-15622, BIO-2011- 28847-C00, BIO-2014-52425-

    A contribution to the study of plant development evolution based on gene co-expression networks

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    Phototrophic eukaryotes are among the most successful organisms on Earth due to their unparalleled efficiency at capturing light energy and fixing carbon dioxide to produce organic molecules. A conserved and efficient network of light-dependent regulatory modules could be at the bases of this success. This regulatory system conferred early advantages to phototrophic eukaryotes that allowed for specialization, complex developmental processes and modern plant characteristics. We have studied light-dependent gene regulatory modules from algae to plants employing integrative-omics approaches based on gene co-expression networks. Our study reveals some remarkably conserved ways in which eukaryotic phototrophs deal with day length and light signaling. Here we describe how a family of Arabidopsis transcription factors involved in photoperiod response has evolved from a single algal gene according to the innovation, amplification and divergence theory of gene evolution by duplication. These modifications of the gene co-expression networks from the ancient unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to the modern brassica Arabidopsis thaliana may hint on the evolution and specialization of plants and other organisms.Espa√Īa Ministerio de Econom√≠a y Competitividad CSD2007-00057Espa√Īa Ministerio de Econom√≠a y Competitividad BIO2011-28847-C02-0

    Characterization of the sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP) isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and role of the S6PPc domain in dimerization

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    Sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (SPP) catalyses the final step in the sucrose biosynthesis pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana genome codifies four SPP isoforms. In this study, the four Arabidopsis thaliana genes coding for SPP isoforms have been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the kinetic and regulatory properties of the purified enzymes analysed. SPP2 is the isoform showing the highest activity, with SPP3b and SPP3a showing lower activity levels. No activity was detected for SPP1. We propose that this lack of activity is probably due to the absence of an essential amino acid participating in catalysis and/or in the binding of the substrate, sucrose-6-phosphate (Suc6P). The expression patterns of Arabidopsis SPP genes indicate that SPP2 and SPP3b are the main isoforms expressed in different tissues and organs, although the non-catalytic SPP1 is the main isoform expressed in roots. Thus, SPP1 could have acquired new unknown functions. We also show that the three catalytically active SPPs from Arabidopsis are dimers. By generating a chimeric SPP composed of the monomeric cyanobacterial SPP fused to the higher plant non-catalytic S6PPc domain (from SPP2), we show that the S6PPc domain is responsible for SPP dimerization. This is the first experimental study on the functionality and gene expression pattern of all the SPPs from a single plant species.Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad TRANSPLANTA Consolider 28317Junta de Andalucía P08-AGR-03582 y CVI-28

    CONSTANS‚ÄďFKBP12 interaction contributes to modulation of photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis

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    Flowering time is a key process in plant development. Photoperiodic signals play a crucial role in the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the protein CONSTANS (CO) has a central regulatory function that is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. The stability of CO protein depends on a light-driven proteasome process that optimizes its accumulation in the evening to promote the production of the florigen FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and induce seasonal flowering. To further investigate the post-translational regulation of CO protein we have dissected its interactome network employing in vivo and in vitro assays and molecular genetics approaches. The immunophilin FKBP12 has been identified in Arabidopsis as a CO interactor that regulates its accumulation and activity. FKBP12 and CO interact through the CCT domain, affecting the stability and function of CO. fkbp12 insertion mutants show a delay in flowering time, while FKBP12 overexpression accelerates flowering, and these phenotypes can be directly related to a change in accumulation of FT protein. The interaction is conserved between the Chlamydomonas algal orthologs CrCO‚ÄďCrFKBP12, revealing an ancient regulatory step in photoperiod regulation of plant development.Ministerio de Ciencia BIO2014-52425-P, BIO2017-83629-RJunta de Andaluc√≠a P08-AGR-03582, BIO-281European Union GA83831

    Biología molecular de las gliceraldehído-3-fosfato deshidrogenasas de cianobacterias y microalgas eucarióticas

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    Se ha estudiado el sistema formado por las enzimas gliceraldeh√≠do-3-fosfato deshidrogenasas (GAPDH) en cianobacterias y microalgas como modelo en la bioenerg√©tica de la fotos√≠ntesis. En cianobacterias se expresa mayoritariamente una enzima GAPDH2 anfib√≥lica, tanto por su dependencia del cofactor nucleot√≠dico (NAD √≥ NADP) como por su participaci√≥n en rutas anab√≥licas y catab√≥licas, por lo que ha sido considerada como una nueva enzima por la IUBMB con el n√ļmero de identificaci√≥n EC 1.2.1.59. El gen gap2 que codifica esta enzima en la cianobacteria unicelular Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ha sido clonado por complementaci√≥n funcional de un mutante gap-de E. coli, siendo la primera vez que esta estrategia se emplea con un gen implicado en la asimilaci√≥n fotosint√©tica del carbono. Su expresi√≥n es m√°xima en autotrof√≠a y m√≠nima en heterotrof√≠a. En la microalga Chlorella fusca se encuentran tres enzimas GAPDH diferentes, dos fosforilantes (una en el cloroplasto y la otra en el citosol) y una no fosforiante citos√≥lica. La utilizaci√≥n de los genes clonados y de anticuerpos monoespecificos en experimentos de "Northern" y "Western blot" ha mostrado que la enzima fosforilante cloropl√°stica desaparece virtualmente en presencia de glucosa en luz pero no en oscuridad, mientras que las otras dos enzimas se expresan en grado m√°ximo en condiciones mixo-y heterotr√≥ficas. El gen que codifica la enzima GAPDH no fosforilante de guisante se ha clonado y la prote√≠na se ha expresado en la enterobacteria E. coli, demostr√°ndose as√≠ la funcionalidad de una posible ruta glicol√≠tica no fosforilante sin rendimiento energ√©tico neto, que podr√≠a ser operativa en eucariotas fotosint√©ticos (microalgas y plantas).

    Uso de una secuencia nucleotidica que regula el momento de la floración, plantas que la expresan y método para producirlas

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    Uso de una secuencia nucleotídica que regula el momento de la floración, plantas que la expresan y método para producirlas.La presente invención se refiere a una secuencia nucleotídica que codifica para una secuencia aminoacídica de un alga verde unicelu
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