8 research outputs found

    A theory of the strain-dependent critical field in Nb3Sn, based on anharmonic phonon generation

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    We propose a theory to explain the strain dependence of the critical properties in A15 superconductors. Starting from the strong-coupling formula for the critical temperature, and assuming that the strain sensitivity stems mostly from the electron-phonon alpha^2F function, we link the strain dependence of the critical properties to a widening of alpha^2F. This widening is attributed to the nonlinear generation of phonons, which takes place in the anharmonic deformation potential induced by the strain. Based on the theory of sum- and difference-frequency wave generation in nonlinear media, we obtain an explicit connection between the widening of alpha^2F and the anharmonic energy. The resulting model is fit to experimental datasets for Nb3Sn, and the anharmonic energy extracted from the fits is compared with first-principles calculations.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Electronic correlations in interacting quantum matter

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    Cette thèse porte sur les corrélations électroniques dans la matière quantique, en particulier dans les systèmes métalliques de basse dimensionalité et à basse température. Dans ces conditions, la réponse du liquide composé par les électrons de conduction aux perturbations devient non-locale dans l'espace. En raison de ça, il est possible de décrire macroscopiquement le liquide d'électrons comme un fluide viscoélastique. Cette approche est appliquée à la réponse électromagnétique des liquides de Fermi, avec nombreuses conséquences observables pour la spectroscopie optique. Dans les supraconducteurs, les corrélations de couplage sont modifiées par la basse dimensionnalité en raison d'une basse densité électronique et du confinement quantique. On étudie ces effets analytiquement et numériquement, en obtenant une solution exacte pour la température critique d'un supraconducteur BCS multibande, dans le bulk et dans la géométrie quasi-2D typique des couches minces et des interfaces. On applique la théorie au titanate de strontium et à l'interface LAO/STO

    Rise and fall of shape resonances in thin films of BCS superconductors

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    The confinement of a superconductor in a thin film changes its Fermi-level density of states and is expected to change its critical temperature Tc. Previous calculations have reported large discontinuities of Tc when the chemical potential coincides with a subband edge. By solving the BCS gap equation exactly, we show that such discontinuities are artifacts and that Tc is a continuous function of the film thickness. We also find that Tc is reduced in thin films compared with the bulk if the confinement potential is lower than a critical value, while for stronger confinement Tc increases with decreasing film thickness, reaches a maximum, and eventually drops to zero. Our numerical results are supported by several exact solutions. We finally interpret experimental data for ultrathin lead thin films in terms of a thickness-dependent effective mass

    BCS superconductivity near the band edge: Exact results for one and several bands

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    We revisit the problem of a BCS superconductor in the regime where the Fermi energy is smaller than the Debye energy. This regime is relevant for low-density superconductors such as SrTiO3 that are not in the BEC limit, as well as in the problem of “shape resonances” associated with the confinement of a three-dimensional superconductor. While the problem is not new, exact results were lacking in the low-density limit. In two dimensions, we find that the initial rise of the pairing temperature Tc at low density n is nonanalytic and faster than any power of n. In three dimensions, we also find that Tc is nonanalytic, but starts with zero slope at weak coupling and infinite slope at strong coupling. Self-consistent treatment of the chemical potential and energy dependence of the density of states are crucial ingredients to obtain these results. We also present exact results for multiband systems and confirm our analytical expressions by numerical simulations

    Modulation of the superconducting critical temperature due to quantum confinement at the LaAlO<sub>3</sub>/SrTiO<sub>3</sub> interface

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    Superconductivity develops in bulk doped SrTiO3 and at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface with a dome-shaped density dependence of the critical temperature Tc , despite different dimensionalities and geometries. We propose that the Tc dome of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 is a shape resonance due to quantum confinement of superconducting bulk SrTiO3. We substantiate this interpretation by comparing the exact solutions of a three-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional two-band BCS gap equation. This comparison highlights the role of heavy bands for Tc in both geometries. For bulk SrTiO3, we extract the density dependence of the pairing interaction from the fit to experimental data. We apply quantum confinement in a square potential well of finite depth and calculate Tc in the confined configuration. We compare the calculated Tc to transport experiments and provide an explanation as to why the optimal Tc's are so close to each other in two-dimensional interfaces and the three-dimensional bulk material

    Extensive Characterization of the 1 mm PIT Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn Strand for the 13-T FRESCA2 Magnet

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    In the framework of the EuCARD program, CERN is participating in the development of a 13 T 100-mm-aperture dipole magnet to upgrade the superconducting cable test facility FRESCA at CERN. The conductor candidates for building this magnet are two 1-mm Nb3Sn strands: the Powder In Tube (PIT) produced by Bruker-EAS and the 132/169 RRP by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST). Recently the PIT strand has been extensively characterized by CERN in collaboration with the University of Geneva (UniGe). The critical current dependence on the magnetic field and on the axial strain has been measured at different temperatures. Furthermore, the strand magnetization has been measured at different temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Finally the magneto-thermal stability of this strand was studied by measuring the quench current between 0 T and 12 T at 1.9 K and 4.3 K. The experimental results are compared with an optimized scaling law for the critical current of Nb3Sn strands. In this paper the results obtained for the PIT strand are summarized and discussed