4,811 research outputs found

    Astrophysical and Cosmological Tests of Quantum Theory

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    We discuss several proposals for astrophysical and cosmological tests of quantum theory. The tests are motivated by deterministic hidden-variables theories, and in particular by the view that quantum physics is merely an effective theory of an equilibrium state. The proposed tests involve searching for nonequilibrium violations of quantum theory in: primordial inflaton fluctuations imprinted on the cosmic microwave background, relic cosmological particles, Hawking radiation, photons with entangled partners inside black holes, neutrino oscillations, and particles from very distant sources.Comment: 25 pages. Amendment to section 7. Contribution to: "The Quantum Universe", special issue of Journal of Physics A, dedicated to Prof. G.-C. Ghirardi on the occasion of his seventieth birthda

    Vlasov simulations of Kinetic Alfv\'en Waves at proton kinetic scales

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    Kinetic Alfv\'en waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton inertial length dpd_p and beyond). A full understanding of the physical mechanisms which govern the kinetic plasma dynamics at these scales can provide important clues on the problem of the turbulent dissipation and heating in collisionless systems. In this paper, hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are employed to analyze in detail the features of the kinetic Alfv\'en waves at proton kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the solar wind environment. In particular, linear and nonlinear regimes of propagation of these fluctuations have been investigated in a single-wave situation, focusing on the physical processes of collisionless Landau damping and wave-particle resonant interaction. Interestingly, since for wavelengths close to dpd_p and proton plasma beta β\beta of order unity the kinetic Alfv\'en waves have small phase speed compared to the proton thermal velocity, wave-particle interaction processes produce significant deformations in the core of the particle velocity distribution, appearing as phase space vortices and resulting in flat-top velocity profiles. Moreover, as the Eulerian hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell algorithm allows for a clean almost noise-free description of the velocity space, three-dimensional plots of the proton velocity distribution help to emphasize how the plasma departs from the Maxwellian configuration of thermodynamic equilibrium due to nonlinear kinetic effects

    Effect of metal clusters on the swelling of gold-fluorocarbon-polymer composite films

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    We have investigated the phenomenon of swelling due to acetone diffusion in fluorocarbon polymer films doped with different gold concentrations below the percolation threshold. The presence of the gold clusters in the polymer is shown to improve the mixing between the fluorocarbon polymer and the acetone, which is not a good solvent for this kind of polymers. In order to explain the experimental results the stoichiometry and the morphology of the polymer--metal system have been studied and a modified version of the Flory--Huggins model has been developed

    First Results for the Solar Neighborhood of the Asiago Red Clump Survey

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    The Asiago Red Clump Spectroscopic Survey (ARCS) is an ongoing survey that provides atmospheric parameters, distances and space velocities of a well selected sample of Red Clump stars distributed along the celestial equator. We used the ARCS catalog for a preliminary investigation of the Galactic disk in the Solar Neighborhood, in particular we focused on detection and characterization of moving groups.Comment: 2 pages, 1 figure, to appear in the proceedings of "Assembling the Puzzle of the Milky Way", Le Grand Bornand (April 17-22, 2011), C. Reyle, A. Robin, M. Schultheis (eds.

    Effetti del raggio di raccordo al fondo foro nella analisi delle tensioni residue con il metodo della rosetta forata

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    Il metodo della rosetta forata è una delle tecniche di analisi delle tensioni residue più utilizzati in campo industriale. Il metodo è abbastanza accurato per tensioni costanti, mentre nel caso di tensioni variabili nello spessore del componente esaminato diverse cause di incertezza devono essere attentamente esaminate. Poiché nella valutazione numerica dei coefficienti di influenza il foro è considerato perfettamente cilindrico e privo di raccordo, una sorgente di errore è costituita dal raggio di raccordo al fondo foro. In questa memoria viene studiato l’effetto che il raggio di raccordo ha sulle deformazioni misurate e sulle tensioni calcolate. E’ cosi mostrato come anche piccoli raggi di raccordo possono essere causa di errori significativi sulle tensioni calcolate. Inoltre, è proposto un metodo semplice di correzione degli errori sulle tensioni calcolate

    Massive Grant-Free Access with Massive MIMO and Spatially Coupled Replicas

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    Massive multiple access schemes, capable of serving a large number of uncoordinated devices while fulfilling reliability and latency constraints, are proposed. The schemes belong to the class of grant-free coded random access protocols and are tailored to massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) base station processing. High reliability is obtained owing to an intra-frame spatial coupling effect, triggered by a simple device access protocol combined with acknowledgements (ACKs) from the base station. To provide system design guidelines, analytical bounds on error floor and latency are also derived. The proposed schemes are particularly interesting to address the challenges of massive machine-type communications in the framework of next generation massive multiple access systems

    Primer Note: A novel set of EST-SSR markers in Tamarix: a resource to characterize this genus

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    AbstractBoth the negative and positive ecological impact of Tamarix plants is controversial, and thus a more comprehensive understanding is necessary. Tamarisks are invasive in many countries but the inter-specific transferability that characterizes simple sequence repeats (SSRs) could be harnessed to track the spread of specific genotypes or to study invasive populations. Thirteen polymorphic SSR markers, derived from expressed sequence tag (EST), were identified by first screening 26 samples of T. aphylla, T. jordanis, T. nilotica, and T. tetragyna and then 33 unidentified tamarisks from Yotvata, Israel. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 14 and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.415. These EST-SSR markers will undoubtedly be useful in the genetic characterization of the genus Tamarix due to their high cross-species transferability which enables the estimation of the genetic diversity among and within different species, that are adapted to the same desert habitat under severe environmental constraints

    Control and virtual reality simulation of tendon driven mechanisms

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    In this paper the authors present a control strategy for tendon driven mechanisms. The aim of the control system is to find the correct torques which the motors have to exert to make the end effector describe a specific trajectory. In robotic assemblies this problem is often solved with closed loop algorithm, but here a simpler method, based on a open loop strategy, is developed. The difficulties in the actuation are in keeping the belt tight during all working conditions. So an innovative solution of this problem is presented here. This methodology can be easily applied in real time monitoring or very fast operations. For this reason several virtual reality simulations, developed using codes written in Virtual Reality Markup Language, are also presented. This approach is very efficient because it requires a very low cpu computation time, small size files, and the manipulator can be easily put into different simulated scenarios
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