2,218 research outputs found

    On the construction of a digital transfer function from its real part on unit circle

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    It is shown in this correspondence that the system function H(z) of a linear time invariant (LTI) causal digital filter with real impulse response coefficients can be obtained from the real part of its frequency response HR(ejω) given in the form of a rational trigonomentric function, using algebraic methods rather than complex contour integration techniques

    Long-term result of Memokath urethral sphincter stent in spinal cord injury patients

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    BACKGROUND: Memokath urethral sphincter stents are used to facilitate bladder emptying in patients with spinal cord injury, but long term follow-up has not been reported. METHODS: Case series of ten men with spinal cord injury who underwent insertion of Memokath stents and were followed for up to nine years. RESULTS: Within four years, the stent had to be removed in nine out of ten patients because of: extensive mucosal proliferation causing obstruction to the lumen of the stent; stone around the proximal end of the stent, incomplete bladder emptying, and recurrent urinary infections; migration of the stent into the bladder related to digital evacuation of bowels; large residual urine; concretions within the stent causing obstruction to flow of urine, and partial blockage of the stent causing frequent episodes of autonomic dysreflexia. In one patient the stent continued to function satisfactorily after nine years. CONCLUSIONS: The Memokath stent has a role as a temporary measure for treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in selected SCI patients who do not get recurrent urinary infection and do not require manual evacuation of bowels

    On arbitrary-level IIR and FIR filters

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    A recently published method for designing IIR (infinite-impulse-response) digital filters with multilevel magnitude responses is reinterpreted from a different viewpoint. On the basis of this interpretation, techniques for extending these results to the case of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters are developed. An advantage of the authors' method is that, when the arbitrary-level filter is implemented, its power-complementary filter, which may be required in specific applications, is obtained simultaneously. Also, by means of a tuning factor (a parameter of the scaling matrix), it is possible to generate a whole family of arbitrary-level filters

    Structure/permeability relationships of silicon-containing polyimides

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    The permeability to H2, O2, N2, CO2 and CH4 of three silicone-polyimide random copolymers and two polyimides containing silicon atoms in their backbone chains, was determined at 35.0 C and at pressures up to about 120 psig (approximately 8.2 atm). The copolymers contained different amounts of BPADA-m-PDA and amine-terminated poly (dimethyl siloxane) and also had different numbers of siloxane linkages in their silicone component. The polyimides containing silicon atoms (silicon-modified polyimides) were SiDA-4,4'-ODA and SiDA-p-PDA. The gas permeability and selectivity of the copolymers are more similar to those of their silicone component than of the polyimide component. By contrast, the permeability and selectivity of the silicon-modified polyimides are more similar to those of their parent polyimides, PMDA-4,4'-ODA and SiDA-p-PDA. The substitution of SiDA for the PMDA moiety in a polyimide appears to result in a significant increase in gas permeability, without a correspondingly large decrease in selectivity. The potential usefulness of the above polymers and copolymers as gas separation membranes is discussed

    Analysis of Software Aging in a Web Server

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    A number of recent studies have reported the phenomenon of “software aging”, characterized by progressive performance degradation and/or an increased occurrence rate of hang/crash failures of a software system due to the exhaustion of operating system resources or the accumulation of errors. To counteract this phenomenon, a proactive technique called 'software rejuvenation' has been proposed. It essentially involves stopping the running software, cleaning its internal state and/or its environment and then restarting it. Software rejuvenation, being preventive in nature, begs the question as to when to schedule it. Periodic rejuvenation, while straightforward to implement, may not yield the best results, because the rate at which software ages is not constant, but it depends on the time-varying system workload. Software rejuvenation should therefore be planned and initiated in the face of the actual system behavior. This requires the measurement, analysis and prediction of system resource usage. In this paper, we study the development of resource usage in a web server while subjecting it to an artificial workload. We first collect data on several system resource usage and activity parameters. Non-parametric statistical methods are then applied for detecting and estimating trends in the data sets. Finally, we fit time series models to the data collected. Unlike the models used previously in the research on software aging, these time series models allow for seasonal patterns, and we show how the exploitation of the seasonal variation can help in adequately predicting the future resource usage. Based on the models employed here, proactive management techniques like software rejuvenation triggered by actual measurements can be built. --Software aging,software rejuvenation,Linux,Apache,web server,performance monitoring,prediction of resource utilization,non-parametric trend analysis,time series analysis

    Towards quantitative mass spectrometry based metabolomics in microbial and mammalian systems

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    Metabolome analyses are a suite of analytical approaches that enable us to capture changes in the metabolome (small molecular weight components, typically less than 1500 Da) in biological systems. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely used for this purpose. The key challenge here is to be able to capture changes in a reproducible and reliant manner that is representative of the events that take place in vivo. Typically, the analysis is carried out in vitro, by isolating the system and extracting the metabolome. MS-based approaches enable us to capture metabolomic changes with high sensitivity and resolution. When developing the technique for different biological systems, there are similarities in challenges and differences that are specific to the system under investigation. Here, we review some of the challenges in capturing quantitative changes in the metabolome with MS based approaches, primarily in microbial and mammalian systems

    Bladder stones – red herring for resurgence of spasticity in a spinal cord injury patient with implantation of Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal delivery of baclofen – a case report

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    BACKGROUND: Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency) drug tolerance, increased stimulus, low reservoir volume, catheter malfunction, disease progression, human error, and pump mechanical failure. We present a SCI patient, in whom bladder calculi acted as red herring for increased spasticity whereas the real cause was spontaneous extrusion of catheter from intrathecal space. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old male sustained a fracture of C5/6 and incomplete tetraplegia at C-8 level. Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy was implanted 13 months later to control severe spasticity. The tip of catheter was placed at T-10 level. The initial dose of baclofen was 300 micrograms/day of baclofen, administered by a simple continuous infusion. During a nine-month period, he required increasing doses of baclofen (875 micrograms/day) to control spasticity. X-ray of abdomen showed multiple radio opaque shadows in the region of urinary bladder. No malfunction of the pump was detected. Therefore, increased spasticity was attributed to bladder stones. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of bladder stones was carried out successfully. Even after removal of bladder stones, this patient required further increases in the dose of intrathecal baclofen (950, 1050, 1200 and then 1300 micrograms/day). Careful evaluation of pump-catheter system revealed that the catheter had extruded spontaneously and was lying in the paraspinal space at L-4, where the catheter had been anchored before it entered the subarachnoid space. A new catheter was passed into the subarachnoid space and the tip of catheter was located at T-8 level. The dose of intrathecal baclofen was decreased to 300 micrograms/day. CONCLUSION: Vesical calculi acted as red herring for resurgence of spasticity. The real cause for increased spasms was spontaneous extrusion of whole length of catheter from subarachnoid space. Repeated bending forwards and straightening of torso for pressure relief and during transfers from wheel chair probably contributed to spontaneous extrusion of catheter from spinal canal in this patient
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