33 research outputs found

    A Conserved Ribosomal Protein Has Entirely Dissimilar Structures in Different Organisms

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    \ua9 The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Ribosomes from different species can markedly differ in their composition by including dozens of ribosomal proteins that are unique to specific lineages but absent in others. However, it remains unknown how ribosomes acquire new proteins throughout evolution. Here, to help answer this question, we describe the evolution of the ribosomal protein msL1/msL2 that was recently found in ribosomes from the parasitic microorganism clade, microsporidia. We show that this protein has a conserved location in the ribosome but entirely dissimilar structures in different organisms: in each of the analyzed species, msL1/msL2 exhibits an altered secondary structure, an inverted orientation of the N-termini and C-termini on the ribosomal binding surface, and a completely transformed 3D fold. We then show that this fold switching is likely caused by changes in the ribosomal msL1/msL2-binding site, specifically, by variations in rRNA. These observations allow us to infer an evolutionary scenario in which a small, positively charged, de novo-born unfolded protein was first captured by rRNA to become part of the ribosome and subsequently underwent complete fold switching to optimize its binding to its evolving ribosomal binding site. Overall, our work provides a striking example of how a protein can switch its fold in the context of a complex biological assembly, while retaining its specificity for its molecular partner. This finding will help us better understand the origin and evolution of new protein components of complex molecular assemblies-thereby enhancing our ability to engineer biological molecules, identify protein homologs, and peer into the history of life on Earth

    Z boson transverse momentum spectrum from the lepton angular distributions

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    In view of recent discussions concerning the possibly limiting energy resolution systematics on the measurement of the Z boson transverse momentum distribution at hadron colliders, we propose a novel measurement method based on the angular distributions of the decay leptons. We also introduce a phenomenological parametrization of the transverse momentum distribution that adapts well to all currently available predictions, a useful tool to quantify their differences.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figure

    Modeling the quantum evolution of the universe through classical matter

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    It is well known that the canonical quantization of the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) filled with a perfect fluid leads to nonsingular universes which, for later times, behave as their classical counterpart. This means that the expectation value of the scale factor (t)(t) never vanishes and, as t→∞t\to\infty, we recover the classical expression for the scale factor. In this paper, we show that such universes can be reproduced by classical cosmology given that the universe is filled with an exotic matter. In the case of a perfect fluid, we find an implicit equation of state (EoS). We then show that this single fluid with an implict EoS is equivalent to two non-interacting fluids, one of them representing stiff matter with negative energy density. In the case of two non-interacting scalar fields, one of them of the phantom type, we find their potential energy. In both cases we find that quantum mechanics changes completely the configuration of matter for small values of time, by adding a fluid or a scalar field with negative energy density. As time passes, the density of negative energy decreases and we recover the ordinary content of the classical universe. The more the initial wave function of the universe is concentrated around the classical big bang singularity, the more it is necessary to add negative energy, since this type of energy will be responsible for the removal of the classical singularity.Comment: updated version as accepted by Gen. Relativ. Gravi

    Superballistic flow of viscous electron fluid through graphene constrictions

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    Electron–electron (e–e) collisions can impact transport in a variety of surprising and sometimes counterintuitive ways1,2,3,4,5,6. Despite strong interest, experiments on the subject proved challenging because of the simultaneous presence of different scattering mechanisms that suppress or obscure consequences of e–e scattering7,8,9,10,11. Only recently, sufficiently clean electron systems with transport dominated by e–e collisions have become available, showing behaviour characteristic of highly viscous fluids12,13,14. Here we study electron transport through graphene constrictions and show that their conductance below 150 K increases with increasing temperature, in stark contrast to the metallic character of doped graphene15. Notably, the measured conductance exceeds the maximum conductance possible for free electrons16,17. This anomalous behaviour is attributed to collective movement of interacting electrons, which ‘shields’ individual carriers from momentum loss at sample boundaries18,19. The measurements allow us to identify the conductance contribution arising due to electron viscosity and determine its temperature dependence. Besides fundamental interest, our work shows that viscous effects can facilitate high-mobility transport at elevated temperatures, a potentially useful behaviour for designing graphene-based devices

    QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories : challenges and perspectives

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    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.Peer reviewe

    Conformal frames and D-dimensional gravity

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    We review some results concerning the properties of static, spherically symmetric solutions of multidimensional theories of gravity: various scalar-tensor theories and a generalized string-motivated model with multiple scalar fields and fields of antisymmetric forms associated with p-branes. A Kaluza-Klein type framework is used: there is no dependence on internal coordinates but multiple internal factor spaces are admitted. We discuss the causal structure and the existence of black holes, wormholes and particle-like configurations in the case of scalar vacuum with arbitrary potentials as well as some observational predictions for exactly solvable systems with p-branes: post-Newtonian coefficients, Coulomb law violation and black hole temperatures. Particular attention is paid to conformal frames in which the theory is initially formulated and which are used for its comparison with observations; it is stressed that, in general, these two kinds of frames do not coincide