131 research outputs found

    Gouty arthritis of the spine in a renal transplant patient : a clinical case report: an unusual presentation of a common disease

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    Axial gout is a well-documented but uncommon manifestation of gout. Its mimicking nature and the impracticality of axial joint aspiration might considerably delay its diagnosis. We report a case in a normouricemic renal transplant recipient, whereby the primary symptom of severe neck pain suggested pyogenic spondylodiscitis as an initial tentative diagnosis. Clinical findings included a high C-reactive protein concentration and elevated body temperature. The patient did not respond to empiric antibiotic treatment and suffered consecutive attacks of severe wrist and ankle pain in conjunction with a persistent fever. Blood and joint cultures were negative, but analysis of aspirated ankle joint fluid revealed monosodium urate crystals. A dual-energy computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of monosodium urate crystals in the costovertebral joints. Colchicine treatment dramatically improved the patient's clinical condition. Axial gout should be considered in transplant recipients with severe neck or back pain, fever, and increased inflammatory parameters with a high likelihood of an infectious etiology, despite the presence of paradoxically normal or even decreased serum urate concentrations. Dual-energy computed tomography is a noninvasive technique of possible benefit in the detection of axial gout when joint fluid aspiration is not deemed safe

    HLA class II antibodies at the time of kidney transplantation and cardiovascular outcome : a retrospective cohort study

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    Background. The negative role of HLA class II donor-specific antibody on graft outcome is well recognized. However, the potentially negative cardiovascular effects of preformed HLA class II antibodies and donor HLA in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) remain unestablished. Methods. We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study including 1115 KTRs (2003–2016) with up to 4449 person-years of follow-up after transplantation and a median follow-up time of 5.1 years (interquartile range, 2.7–7.6). We evaluated the unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted association between pretransplant HLA class I and II antibodies, as well as HLA-DR1 donor/recipient genotype and the primary (major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event [MACCE] or all-cause mortality) and secondary (MACCE or cardiovascular mortality) outcome. Results. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, HLA class II antibodies before transplantation were associated with increased adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for MACCE or all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.71 [1.13–2.60]; P = 0.012) even after adjustment for time-varying covariate graft loss (aHR, 1.68 [1.08–2.62]; P = 0.022) and biopsy-proven acute rejection (aHR, 1.71 [1.13–2.60]; P = 0.012). HLA class II antibodies were also associated with increased aHR for the secondary outcome, MACCE, or cardiovascular mortality (aHR, 1.92 [1.12–3.30]; P = 0.018). We investigated the effect of donor and recipient HLA-DR1 on these outcome parameters and demonstrated that KTRs with HLA-DR1 positive donors had an increased aHR for MACCE with all-cause (aHR, 1.45 [1.09–1.94]; P = 0.012) and cardiovascular mortality (aHR, 1.49 [1.00–2.22]; P = 0.05). Conclusions. Prior sensitization against HLA class II antigens is associated with unfavorable long-term cardiovascular outcome in KTRs independent of graft loss or rejection. Recipients of an HLA-DR1 donor also have an impaired cardiovascular outcome

    The role of HLA-DP mismatches and donor specific HLA-DP antibodies in kidney transplantation : a case series

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    BACKGROUND: The impact of HLA-DP mismatches on renal allograft outcome is still poorly understood and is suggested to be less than that of the other HLA loci. The common association of HLA-DP donor-specific antibodies (DSA) with other DSA obviates the evaluation of the actual effect of HLA-DP DSA. METHODS: From a large multicenter data collection, we retrospectively evaluated the significance of HLA-DP DSA on transplant outcome and the immunogenicity of HLA-DP eplet mismatches with respect to the induction of HLA-DP DSA. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the MFI of HLA-DP antibodies detected in Luminex assays and the outcome of flowcytometric/complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatches. RESULTS: In patients with isolated pretransplant HLA-DP antibodies (N = 13), 6 experienced antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and 3 patients lost their graft. In HLAMatchmaker analysis of HLA-DP mismatches (N = 72), HLA-DP DSA developed after cessation of immunosuppression in all cases with 84DEAV (N = 14), in 86% of cases with 85GPM (N = 6/7), in 50% of cases with 56E (N = 6/12) and in 40% of cases with 56A mismatch (N = 2/5). Correlation analysis between isolated HLA-DP DSA MFI and crossmatches (N = 90) showed negative crossmatch results with HLA-DP DSA MFI <2000 (N = 14). Below an MFI of 10,000 CDC crossmatches were also negative (N = 33). Above these MFI values both positive (N = 35) and negative (N = 16) crossmatch results were generated. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated HLA-DP DSA are rare, yet constitute a significant risk for AMR. We identified high-risk eplet mismatches that can lead to HLA-DP DSA formation. We therefore recommend HLA-DP typing to perform HLA-DP DSA analysis before transplantation. HLA-DP DSA with high MFI were not always correlated with positive crossmatch results

    Deleting death and dialysis: Conservative care of cardio-vascular risk and kidney function loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD)

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    The uremic syndrome, which is the clinical expression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a complex amalgam of accelerated aging and organ dysfunctions, whereby cardio-vascular disease plays a capital role. In this narrative review, we offer a summary of the current conservative (medical) treatment options for cardio-vascular and overall morbidity and mortality risk in CKD. Since the progression of CKD is also associated with a higher cardio-vascular risk, we summarize the interventions that may prevent the progression of CKD as well. We pay attention to established therapies, as well as to novel promising options. Approaches that have been considered are not limited to pharmacological approaches but take into account lifestyle measures and diet as well. We took as many randomized controlled hard endpoint outcome trials as possible into account, although observational studies and post hoc analyses were included where appropriate. We also considered health economic aspects. Based on this information, we constructed comprehensive tables summarizing the available therapeutic options and the number and kind of studies (controlled or not, contradictory outcomes or not) with regard to each approach. Our review underscores the scarcity of well-designed large controlled trials in CKD. Nevertheless, based on the controlled and observational data, a therapeutic algorithm can be developed for this complex and multifactorial condition. It is likely that interventions should be aimed at targeting several modifiable factors simultaneously

    Serum Mg isotopic composition reveals that Mg dyshomeostasis remains in type 1 diabetes despite the resolution of hypomagnesemia

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    Hypomagnesemia was historically prevalent in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but contemporary results indicate an incidence comparable to that in the general population, likely due to improved treatment in recent decades, resulting in better glycemic control. However, a recent study found a significant difference between the serum Mg isotopic composition of T1DM individuals and controls, indicating that disruptions to Mg homeostasis persist. Significant deviations were also found in samples taken one year apart. To investigate whether the temporal variability in serum Mg isotopic composition is linked to the transient impact of administered insulin, Mg isotope ratios were determined in serum from 15 T1DM individuals before and one hour after insulin injection/meal consumption using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Consistent with results of the previous study, significant difference in the serum Mg isotopic composition was found between T1DM individuals and 10 sex-matched controls. However, the average difference between pre- and post-insulin injection/meal T1DM samples of 0.05 ± 0.13‰ (1SD) was not significant. No difference was observed for controls before (−0.12 ± 0.16‰) and after the meal (−0.10 ± 0.13‰) either, suggesting a lack of a postprandial Mg isotopic response within one hour of food consumption, and that the timing of the most recent meal may not require controlling for when determining serum Mg isotopic composition
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