52 research outputs found

    An Electrochemical Study of Frustrated Lewis Pairs: A Metal-free Route to Hydrogen Oxidation

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    [Image: see text] Frustrated Lewis pairs have found many applications in the heterolytic activation of H(2) and subsequent hydrogenation of small molecules through delivery of the resulting proton and hydride equivalents. Herein, we describe how H(2) can be preactivated using classical frustrated Lewis pair chemistry and combined with in situ nonaqueous electrochemical oxidation of the resulting borohydride. Our approach allows hydrogen to be cleanly converted into two protons and two electrons in situ, and reduces the potential (the required energetic driving force) for nonaqueous H(2) oxidation by 610 mV (117.7 kJ mol(ÔÇô1)). This significant energy reduction opens routes to the development of nonaqueous hydrogen energy technology

    Tweezers for Parahydrogen: A Metal-Free Probe of Nonequilibrium Nuclear Spin States of H<sub>2</sub> Molecules

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    To date, only metal-containing hydrogenation catalysts have been utilized for producing substantial NMR signal enhancements by means of parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP). Herein, we show that metal-free compounds known as molecular tweezers are useful in this respect. It is shown that <i>ansa</i>-aminoborane tweezers QCAT provided (20ÔÇô30)-fold signal enhancements of parahydrogen-originating hydrogens in <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectra. Nuclear polarization transfer from the polarized hydrogens to <sup>11</sup>B nuclei leads to a 10-fold enhancement in the <sup>11</sup>B NMR spectrum. Moreover, our results indicate that dihydrogen activation by QCAT and CAT tweezers is carried out in a pairwise manner, and PHIP can be used for understanding the activation mechanism in metal-free catalytic systems in general

    Reactions of substituted pyridines with electrophilic boranes

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    Caputo CB, Geier SJ, Winkelhaus D, et al. Reactions of substituted pyridines with electrophilic boranes. Dalton Transactions. 2012;41(7):2131-2139.The lutidine derivative (2,6-Me(2))(4-Bpin)C(5)H(2)N when combined with B(C(6)F(5))(3) yields a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) which reacts with H(2) to give the salt [(2,6-Me(2))(4-Bpin)C(5)H(2)NH][HB(C(6)F(5))(3)] (1). Similarly 2,2 '-(C(5)H(2)(4,6-Me(2))N)(2) and (4,4 '-(C(5)H(2)(4,6-Me(2))N)(2) were also combined with B(C(6)F(5))(3) and exposed to H(2) to give [(2,2 '-HN(2,6-Me(2))C(5)H(2)C(5)H(2)(4,6-Me(2))N][HB(C(6)F(5))(3)] (2) and [(4,4 '-HN(2,6-Me(2))C(5)H(2)C(5)H(2)(2,6-Me(2))N] [HB(C(6)F(5))(3)] (3), respectively. The mono-pyridine-N-oxide 4,4 '-N(2,6-Me(2))C(5)H(2)C(5)H(2)(2,6-Me(2))NO formed the adduct (4,4 '-N(2,6-Me(2))C(5)H(2)C(5)H(2)(2,6-Me(2))NO)(B(C(6)F(5))(3)) (4) which reacts further with B(C(6)F(5))(3) and H(2) to give [(4,4 '-HN(2,6-Me(2))C(5)H(2)C(5)H(2)(2,6-Me(2)) NO)B(C(6)F(5))(3)] [HB(C(6)F(5))(3)] (5). In a related sense, 2-amino-6-CF(3)-C(5)H(3)N reacts with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to give (C(5)H(3)(6-CF(3))NH)(2-NH(B(C(6)F(5))(3))) (6). Similarly, the species, 2-amino-quinoline, 8-amino-quinoline and 2-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine were reacted with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to give the products as (C(9)H(6)NH)(2-NHB(C(6)F(5))(3)) (7), (C(9)H(6)N)(8-NH(2)B(C(6)F(5))(3)) (8) and (C(5)H(3)(6-Me)NH)(2-OB(C(6)F(5))(3)) (9), respectively; while 2-amino-6-picoline, 2-amino-6-CF(3)-pyridine, 2-amino-quinoline, 8-amino-quinoline and 2-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine react with ClB(C(6)F(5))(2) to give the species (C(5)H(3)(6-R)NH)(2-NH-(ClB(C(6)F(5))(2))) (R = Me (10), R = CF(3) (11)) (C(9)H(6)NH)(2-NH(ClB(C(6)F(5))(2))) (12), (C(9)H(6)N)(8-NH(2)ClB(C(6)F(5))(2)) (13) and (C(5)H(3)(6-Me)NH)(2-OClB(C(6)F(5))(2)) (14), respectively. In a similar manner, 2-amino-6-picoline and 2-amino-quinoline react with B(C(6)F(5))(2)H to give (C(5)H(3)(6-Me)NH)(2-NH(HB(C(6)F(5))(2))) (15) and (C(9)H(6)NH)(2-NH(HB(C(6)F(5))(2))) (16). The corresponding reaction of 8-amino-quinoline yields (C(9)H(6)N)(8-NHB(C(6)F(5))(2)) (17). In a similar fashion, reaction of 2-amino-6-CF3-pyridine resulted in the formation of (18) formulated as (C(5)H(3)(6-CF(3))N)-(2-NH(B(C(6)F(5))(2)). Finally, treatment of 15 with iPrMgCl gave (C(9)H(6)N)(2-NH(B(C(6)F(5))(2))) (19). Crystallographic studies of 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 15 are reported
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