510 research outputs found

    A Radiative Cycle with Stimulated Emission from Atoms (Ions) in an astrophysical Plasma

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    We propose that a radiative cycle operates in atoms (ions) located in a rarefied gas in the vicinity of a hot star. Besides spontaneous transitions the cycle includes a stimulated transition in one very weak intermediate channel. This radiative "bottle neck" creates a population inversion, which for an appropriate column density results in amplification and stimulated radiation in the weak transition. The stimulated emission opens a fast decay channel leading to a fast radiative cycle in the atom (or ion). We apply this model by explaining two unusually bright Fe II lines at 250.7 and 250.9 nm in the UV spectrum of gas blobs close to h Carinae, one of the most massive and luminous stars in the Galaxy. The gas blobs are spatially resolved from the central star by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We also suggest that in the frame of a radiative cycle stimulated emission is a key phenomenon behind many spectral lines showing anomalous intensities in spectra of gas blobs outside eruptive stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Letter

    Matter-wave analog of an optical random laser

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    The accumulation of atoms in the lowest energy level of a trap and the subsequent out-coupling of these atoms is a realization of a matter-wave analog of a conventional optical laser. Optical random lasers require materials that provide optical gain but, contrary to conventional lasers, the modes are determined by multiple scattering and not a cavity. We show that a Bose-Einstein condensate can be loaded in a spatially correlated disorder potential prepared in such a way that the Anderson localization phenomenon operates as a band-pass filter. A multiple scattering process selects atoms with certain momenta and determines laser modes which represents a matter-wave analog of an optical random laser.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures version accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. A; minor changes, the present title substituted for "Atom Random Laser

    Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations

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    Statistical fluctuations of the light emitted from amplifying random media are studied theoretically and numerically. The characteristic scales of the diffusive motion of light lead to Gaussian or power-law (Levy) distributed fluctuations depending on external control parameters. In the Levy regime, the output pulse is highly irregular leading to huge deviations from a mean--field description. Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified model which includes the population of the medium, demonstrate the two statistical regimes and provide a comparison with dynamical rate equations. Different statistics of the fluctuations helps to explain recent experimental observations reported in the literature.Comment: Revised version, resubmitted to Physical Review

    Fluctuations in a diffusive medium with gain

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    We present a stochastic model for amplifying, diffusive media like, for instance, random lasers. Starting from a simple random-walk model, we derive a stochastic partial differential equation for the energy field with contains a multiplicative random-advection term yielding intermittency and power-law distributions of the field itself. Dimensional analysis indicate that such features are more likely to be observed for small enough samples and in lower spatial dimensions

    Optofluidic random laser

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    An active disordered medium able to lase is called a random laser (RL). We demonstrate random lasing due to inherent disorder in a dye circulated structured microfluidic channel. We consistently observe RL modes which are varied by changing the pumping conditions. Potential applications for on-chip sources and sensors are discussed.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figure

    A study of random laser modes in disordered photonic crystals

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    We studied lasing modes in a disordered photonic crystal. The scaling of the lasing threshold with the system size depends on the strength of disorder. For sufficiently large size, the minimum of the lasing threshold occurs at some finite value of disorder strength. The highest random cavity quality factor was comparable to that of an intentionally introduced single defect. At the minimum, the lasing threshold showed a super-exponential decrease with the size of the system. We explain it through a migration of the lasing mode frequencies toward the photonic bandgap center, where the localization length takes the minimum value. Random lasers with exponentially low thresholds are predicted.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Photon scattering from strongly driven atomic ensembles

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    The second order correlation function for light emitted from a strongly and near-resonantly driven dilute cloud of atoms is discussed. Because of the strong driving, the fluorescence spectrum separates into distinct peaks, for which the spectral properties can be defined individually. It is shown that the second-order correlations for various combinations of photons from different spectral lines exhibit bunching together with super- or sub-Poissonian photon statistics, tunable by the choice of the detector positions. Additionally, a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is violated for photons emitted from particular spectral bands. The emitted light intensity is proportional to the square of the number of particles, and thus can potentially be intense. Three different averaging procedures to model ensemble disorder are compared.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Steady-state signatures of radiation trapping by cold multilevel atoms

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    In this paper, we use steady-state measurements to obtain evidence of radiation trapping in an optically thick a cloud of cold rubidium atoms. We investigate the fluorescence properties of our sample, pumped on opened transitions. The intensity of fluorescence exhibits a non trivial dependence on the optical thickness of the media. A simplified model, based on rate equations self-consistently coupled to a diffusive model of light transport, is used to explain the experimental observations in terms of incoherent radiation trapping on one spectral line. Measurements of atomic populations and fluorescence spectrum qualitatively agree with this interpretation.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figure

    Non-Markovian Decay and Lasing Condition in an Optical Microcavity Coupled to a Structured Reservoir

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    The decay dynamics of the classical electromagnetic field in a leaky optical resonator supporting a single mode coupled to a structured continuum of modes (reservoir) is theoretically investigated, and the issue of threshold condition for lasing in presence of an inverted medium is comprehensively addressed. Specific analytical results are given for a single-mode microcavity resonantly coupled to a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW), which supports a band of continuous modes acting as decay channels. For weak coupling, the usual exponential Weisskopf-Wigner (Markovian) decay of the field in the bare resonator is found, and the threshold for lasing increases linearly with the coupling strength. As the coupling between the microcavity and the structured reservoir increases, the field decay in the passive cavity shows non exponential features, and correspondingly the threshold for lasing ceases to increase, reaching a maximum and then starting to decrease as the coupling strength is further increased. A singular behavior for the "laser phase transition", which is a clear signature of strong non-Markovian dynamics, is found at critical values of the coupling between the microcavity and the reservoir.Comment: to appear in Phys. Rev. A (December 2006 issue

    Nuclear quantum optics with x-ray laser pulses

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    The direct interaction of nuclei with super-intense laser fields is studied. We show that present and upcoming high-frequency laser facilities, especially together with a moderate acceleration of the target nuclei, do allow for resonant laser-nucleus interaction. These direct interactions may be utilized for the optical measurement of nuclear properties such as the transition frequency and the dipole moment, thus opening the field of nuclear quantum optics. As ultimate goal, one may hope that direct laser-nucleus interactions could become a versatile tool to enhance preparation, control and detection in nuclear physics.Comment: 5 pages, 3 eps figures, revised versio
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