5,060 research outputs found

    Tachyons, Scalar Fields and Cosmology

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    We study the role that tachyon fields may play in cosmology as compared to the well-established use of minimally coupled scalar fields. We first elaborate on a kind of correspondence existing between tachyons and minimally coupled scalar fields; corresponding theories give rise to the same cosmological evolution for a particular choice of the initial conditions but not for any other. This leads us to study a specific one-parameter family of tachyonic models based on a perfect fluid mixed with a positive cosmological constant. For positive values of the parameter one needs to modify Sen's action and use the sigma process of resolution of singularities. The physics described by this model is dramatically different and much richer than that of the corresponding scalar field. For particular choices of the initial conditions the universe, that does mimick for a long time a de Sitter-like expansion, ends up in a finite time in a special type of singularity that we call a "big brake". This singularity is characterized by an infinite deceleration.Comment: 7 figures. Enlarged discussion of the big brake cosmology. Continuation of the model clarified. References adde

    Variable Modified Chaplygin Gas and Accelerating Universe

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    In this letter, I have proposed a model of variable modified Chaplygin gas and shown its role in accelerating phase of the universe. I have shown that the equation of state of this model is valid from the radiation era to quiessence model. The graphical representations of statefinder parameters characterize different phase of evolution of the universe. All results presented in the letter concerns the case k=0k=0.Comment: 7 Latex pages, 5 figures, revtex styl

    Analogue Gravity and ultrashort laser pulse filamentation

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    Ultrashort laser pulse filaments in dispersive nonlinear Kerr media induce a moving refractive index perturbation which modifies the space-time geometry as seen by co-propagating light rays. We study the analogue geometry induced by the filament and show that one of the most evident features of filamentation, namely conical emission, may be precisely reconstructed from the geodesics. We highlight the existence of favorable conditions for the study of analogue black hole kinematics and Hawking type radiation.Comment: 4 pages, revised versio

    Do supernovae favor tachyonic Big Brake instead de Sitter?

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    We investigate whether a tachyonic scalar field, encompassing both dark energy and dark matter-like features will drive our universe towards a Big Brake singularity or a de Sitter expansion. In doing this it is crucial to establish the parameter domain of the model, which is compatible with type Ia supernovae data. We find the 1-sigma contours and evolve the tachyonic sytem into the future. We conclude, that both future evolutions are allowed by observations, Big Brake becoming increasingly likely with the increase of the positive model parameter k.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the Invisible Universe International Conference, Paris, 2009, Ed. J. M. Alimi; v2: reference

    Spacetime geometries and light trapping in travelling refractive index perturbations

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    In the framework of transformation optics, we show that the propagation of a locally superluminal refractive index perturbation (RIP) in a Kerr medium can be described, in the eikonal approximation, by means of a stationary metric, which we prove to be of Gordon type. Under suitable hypotheses on the RIP, we obtain a stationary but not static metric, which is characterized by an ergosphere and by a peculiar behaviour of the geodesics, which are studied numerically, also accounting for material dispersion. Finally, the equation to be satisfied by an event horizon is also displayed and briefly discussed.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

    Cosmology of fermionic dark matter

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    We explore a model for a fermionic dark matter particle family which decouples from the rest of the partices when at least all standard model particles are in equilibrium. We calculate the allowed ranges for mass and chemical potential to be compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculations and WMAP-data for a flat universe with dark energy. Futhermore we estimate the free streaming length for fermions and antifermions to allow comparison to large scale structure data (LLS). We find that for dark matter decoupling when all standard model particles are present even the least restrictive combined BBN calculation and WMAP results allow us to constrain the initial dark matter chemical potential to a highest value of 6.3 times the dark matter temperature. In this case the resulting mass range is at most 1.8 eV < m < 53 eV, where the upper bound scales linearly with the effective degrees of freedom at decoupling. From LSS we find that similar to ordinary warm dark matter models the particle mass has to be larger than approximately 500 eV (meaning the effective degrees of freedom at decoupling have to be > 1000) to be compatible with observations of the Ly alpha forest at high redshift, but still the dark matter chemical potential over temperature ratio can exceed unity.Comment: 14 pages, 13 figures; Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. D., minor changes after referee report: references added, several minor extensions (mostly to the introduction). Also conclusion extended with an additional summary plot to clarify the result

    Quasiclassical approach to the spin-Hall effect in the two-dimensional electron gas

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    We study the spin-charge coupled transport in a two-dimensional electron system using the method of quasiclassical (ξ\xi-integrated) Green's functions. In particular we derive the Eilenberger equation in the presence of a generic spin-orbit field. The method allows us to study spin and charge transport from ballistic to diffusive regimes and continuity equations for spin and charge are automatically incorporated. In the clean limit we establish the connection between the spin-Hall conductivity and the Berry phase in momentum space. For finite systems we solve the Eilenberger equation numerically for the special case of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and a two-terminal geometry. In particular, we calculate explicitly the spin-Hall induced spin polarization in the corners, predicted by Mishchenko et al. [13]. Furthermore we find universal spin currents in the short-time dynamics after switching on the voltage across the sample, and calculate the corresponding spin-Hall polarization at the edges. Where available, we find perfect agreement with analytical results.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Reply to Comment on: Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments

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    A comment by R. Schutzhold et al. raises possible concerns and questions regarding recent measurements of analogue Hawking radiation. We briefly reply to the opinions expressed in the comment and sustain that the origin of the radiation may be understood in terms of Hawking emission

    Non-Abelian gauge fields in the gradient expansion: generalized Boltzmann and Eilenberger equations

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    We present a microscopic derivation of the generalized Boltzmann and Eilenberger equations in the presence of non-Abelian gauges, for the case of a non-relativistic disordered Fermi gas. A unified and symmetric treatment of the charge [U(1)][U(1)] and spin [SU(2)][SU(2)] degrees of freedom is achieved. Within this framework, just as the U(1)U(1) Lorentz force generates the Hall effect, so does its SU(2)SU(2) counterpart give rise to the spin Hall effect. Considering elastic and spin-independent disorder we obtain diffusion equations for charge and spin densities and show how the interplay between an in-plane magnetic field and a time dependent Rashba term generates in-plane charge currents.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure; some corrections and updated/extended reference

    Scalar models for the generalized Chaplygin gas and the structure formation constraints

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    The generalized Chaplygin gas model represents an attempt to unify dark matter and dark energy. It is characterized by a fluid with an equation of state p=A/ραp = - A/\rho^\alpha. It can be obtained from a generalization of the DBI action for a scalar, tachyonic field. At background level, this model gives very good results, but it suffers from many drawbacks at perturbative level. We show that, while for background analysis it is possible to consider any value for α\alpha, the perturbative analysis must be restricted to positive values of α\alpha. This restriction can be circumvented if the origin of the generalized Chaplygin gas is traced back to a self-interacting scalar field, instead of the DBI action. But, in doing so, the predictions coming from formation of large scale structures reduce the generalized Chaplygin gas model to a kind of quintessence model, and the unification scenario is lost, if the scalar field is the canonical one. However, if the unification condition is imposed from the beginning as a prior, the model may remain competitive. More interesting results, concerning the unification program, are obtained if a non-canonical self-interacting scalar field, inspired by Rastall's theory of gravity, is imposed. In this case, an agreement with the background tests is possible.Comment: Latex file, 25 pages, 33 figures in eps format. New section on scalar models. Accepted for publication in Gravitation&Cosmolog
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