5,060 research outputs found

### Tachyons, Scalar Fields and Cosmology

We study the role that tachyon fields may play in cosmology as compared to
the well-established use of minimally coupled scalar fields. We first elaborate
on a kind of correspondence existing between tachyons and minimally coupled
scalar fields; corresponding theories give rise to the same cosmological
evolution for a particular choice of the initial conditions but not for any
other. This leads us to study a specific one-parameter family of tachyonic
models based on a perfect fluid mixed with a positive cosmological constant.
For positive values of the parameter one needs to modify Sen's action and use
the sigma process of resolution of singularities. The physics described by this
model is dramatically different and much richer than that of the corresponding
scalar field. For particular choices of the initial conditions the universe,
that does mimick for a long time a de Sitter-like expansion, ends up in a
finite time in a special type of singularity that we call a "big brake". This
singularity is characterized by an infinite deceleration.Comment: 7 figures. Enlarged discussion of the big brake cosmology.
Continuation of the model clarified. References adde

### Variable Modified Chaplygin Gas and Accelerating Universe

In this letter, I have proposed a model of variable modified Chaplygin gas
and shown its role in accelerating phase of the universe. I have shown that the
equation of state of this model is valid from the radiation era to quiessence
model. The graphical representations of statefinder parameters characterize
different phase of evolution of the universe. All results presented in the
letter concerns the case $k=0$.Comment: 7 Latex pages, 5 figures, revtex styl

### Analogue Gravity and ultrashort laser pulse filamentation

Ultrashort laser pulse filaments in dispersive nonlinear Kerr media induce a
moving refractive index perturbation which modifies the space-time geometry as
seen by co-propagating light rays. We study the analogue geometry induced by
the filament and show that one of the most evident features of filamentation,
namely conical emission, may be precisely reconstructed from the geodesics. We
highlight the existence of favorable conditions for the study of analogue black
hole kinematics and Hawking type radiation.Comment: 4 pages, revised versio

### Do supernovae favor tachyonic Big Brake instead de Sitter?

We investigate whether a tachyonic scalar field, encompassing both dark
energy and dark matter-like features will drive our universe towards a Big
Brake singularity or a de Sitter expansion. In doing this it is crucial to
establish the parameter domain of the model, which is compatible with type Ia
supernovae data. We find the 1-sigma contours and evolve the tachyonic sytem
into the future. We conclude, that both future evolutions are allowed by
observations, Big Brake becoming increasingly likely with the increase of the
positive model parameter k.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the
Invisible Universe International Conference, Paris, 2009, Ed. J. M. Alimi;
v2: reference

### Spacetime geometries and light trapping in travelling refractive index perturbations

In the framework of transformation optics, we show that the propagation of a
locally superluminal refractive index perturbation (RIP) in a Kerr medium can
be described, in the eikonal approximation, by means of a stationary metric,
which we prove to be of Gordon type. Under suitable hypotheses on the RIP, we
obtain a stationary but not static metric, which is characterized by an
ergosphere and by a peculiar behaviour of the geodesics, which are studied
numerically, also accounting for material dispersion. Finally, the equation to
be satisfied by an event horizon is also displayed and briefly discussed.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

### Cosmology of fermionic dark matter

We explore a model for a fermionic dark matter particle family which
decouples from the rest of the partices when at least all standard model
particles are in equilibrium. We calculate the allowed ranges for mass and
chemical potential to be compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN)
calculations and WMAP-data for a flat universe with dark energy. Futhermore we
estimate the free streaming length for fermions and antifermions to allow
comparison to large scale structure data (LLS). We find that for dark matter
decoupling when all standard model particles are present even the least
restrictive combined BBN calculation and WMAP results allow us to constrain the
initial dark matter chemical potential to a highest value of 6.3 times the dark
matter temperature. In this case the resulting mass range is at most 1.8 eV < m
< 53 eV, where the upper bound scales linearly with the effective degrees of
freedom at decoupling. From LSS we find that similar to ordinary warm dark
matter models the particle mass has to be larger than approximately 500 eV
(meaning the effective degrees of freedom at decoupling have to be > 1000) to
be compatible with observations of the Ly alpha forest at high redshift, but
still the dark matter chemical potential over temperature ratio can exceed
unity.Comment: 14 pages, 13 figures; Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. D., minor changes
after referee report: references added, several minor extensions (mostly to
the introduction). Also conclusion extended with an additional summary plot
to clarify the result

### Quasiclassical approach to the spin-Hall effect in the two-dimensional electron gas

We study the spin-charge coupled transport in a two-dimensional electron
system using the method of quasiclassical ($\xi$-integrated) Green's functions.
In particular we derive the Eilenberger equation in the presence of a generic
spin-orbit field. The method allows us to study spin and charge transport from
ballistic to diffusive regimes and continuity equations for spin and charge are
automatically incorporated. In the clean limit we establish the connection
between the spin-Hall conductivity and the Berry phase in momentum space. For
finite systems we solve the Eilenberger equation numerically for the special
case of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and a two-terminal geometry. In
particular, we calculate explicitly the spin-Hall induced spin polarization in
the corners, predicted by Mishchenko et al. [13]. Furthermore we find universal
spin currents in the short-time dynamics after switching on the voltage across
the sample, and calculate the corresponding spin-Hall polarization at the
edges. Where available, we find perfect agreement with analytical results.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

### Reply to Comment on: Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments

A comment by R. Schutzhold et al. raises possible concerns and questions
regarding recent measurements of analogue Hawking radiation. We briefly reply
to the opinions expressed in the comment and sustain that the origin of the
radiation may be understood in terms of Hawking emission

### Non-Abelian gauge fields in the gradient expansion: generalized Boltzmann and Eilenberger equations

We present a microscopic derivation of the generalized Boltzmann and
Eilenberger equations in the presence of non-Abelian gauges, for the case of a
non-relativistic disordered Fermi gas. A unified and symmetric treatment of the
charge $[U(1)]$ and spin $[SU(2)]$ degrees of freedom is achieved. Within this
framework, just as the $U(1)$ Lorentz force generates the Hall effect, so does
its $SU(2)$ counterpart give rise to the spin Hall effect. Considering elastic
and spin-independent disorder we obtain diffusion equations for charge and spin
densities and show how the interplay between an in-plane magnetic field and a
time dependent Rashba term generates in-plane charge currents.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure; some corrections and updated/extended reference

### Scalar models for the generalized Chaplygin gas and the structure formation constraints

The generalized Chaplygin gas model represents an attempt to unify dark
matter and dark energy. It is characterized by a fluid with an equation of
state $p = - A/\rho^\alpha$. It can be obtained from a generalization of the
DBI action for a scalar, tachyonic field. At background level, this model gives
very good results, but it suffers from many drawbacks at perturbative level. We
show that, while for background analysis it is possible to consider any value
for $\alpha$, the perturbative analysis must be restricted to positive values
of $\alpha$. This restriction can be circumvented if the origin of the
generalized Chaplygin gas is traced back to a self-interacting scalar field,
instead of the DBI action. But, in doing so, the predictions coming from
formation of large scale structures reduce the generalized Chaplygin gas model
to a kind of quintessence model, and the unification scenario is lost, if the
scalar field is the canonical one. However, if the unification condition is
imposed from the beginning as a prior, the model may remain competitive. More
interesting results, concerning the unification program, are obtained if a
non-canonical self-interacting scalar field, inspired by Rastall's theory of
gravity, is imposed. In this case, an agreement with the background tests is
possible.Comment: Latex file, 25 pages, 33 figures in eps format. New section on scalar
models. Accepted for publication in Gravitation&Cosmolog

- …