530 research outputs found

    Ab initio study of canted magnetism of finite atomic chains at surfaces

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    By using ab initio methods on different levels we study the magnetic ground state of (finite) atomic wires deposited on metallic surfaces. A phenomenological model based on symmetry arguments suggests that the magnetization of a ferromagnetic wire is aligned either normal to the wire and, generally, tilted with respect to the surface normal or parallel to the wire. From a first principles point of view, this simple model can be best related to the so--called magnetic force theorem calculations being often used to explore magnetic anisotropy energies of bulk and surface systems. The second theoretical approach we use to search for the canted magnetic ground state is first principles adiabatic spin dynamics extended to the case of fully relativistic electron scattering. First, for the case of two adjacent Fe atoms an a Cu(111) surface we demonstrate that the reduction of the surface symmetry can indeed lead to canted magnetism. The anisotropy constants and consequently the ground state magnetization direction are very sensitive to the position of the dimer with respect to the surface. We also performed calculations for a seven--atom Co chain placed along a step edge of a Pt(111) surface. As far as the ground state spin orientation is concerned we obtain excellent agreement with experiment. Moreover, the magnetic ground state turns out to be slightly noncollinear.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures; presented on the International Conference on Nanospintronics Design and Realizations, Kyoto, Japan, May 2004; to appear in J. Phys.: Cond. Matte

    Spin currents and spin dynamics in time-dependent density-functional theory

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    We derive and analyse the equation of motion for the spin degrees of freedom within time-dependent spin-density-functional theory (TD-SDFT). Results are (i) a prescription for obtaining many-body corrections to the single-particle spin currents from the Kohn-Sham equation of TD-SDFT, (ii) the existence of an exchange-correlation (xc) torque within TD-SDFT, (iii) a prescription for calculating, from TD-SDFT, the torque exerted by spin currents on the spin magnetization, (iv) a novel exact constraint on approximate xc functionals, and (v) the discovery of serious deficiencies of popular approximations to TD-SDFT when applied to spin dynamics.Comment: now includes discussion of OEP and GGA; to appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    Pion-Lambda-Sigma Coupling Extracted from Hyperonic Atoms

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    The latest measurements of the atomic level width in Sigma-hyperonic Pb atom offer the most accurate datum in the region of low-energy Sigma-hyperon physics. Atomic widths are due to the conversion of Sigma-nucleon into Lambda-nucleon. In high angular momentum states this conversion is dominated by the one-pion exchange. A joint analysis of the data of the scattering of negative-Sigma on proton converting into a Lambda and a neutron and of the atomic widths allows to extract a pseudovector pion-hyperon-Sigma coupling constant of 0.048 with a statistical error of +-0.005 and a systematic one of +-0.004. This corresponds to a pseudoscalar coupling constant of 13.3 with a statistical uncertainty of 1.4 and a systematic one of 1.1.Comment: 12 pages, 1 figure, Use of Revtex.st

    Stochastic Resonance of Ensemble Neurons for Transient Spike Trains: A Wavelet Analysis

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    By using the wavelet transformation (WT), we have analyzed the response of an ensemble of NN (=1, 10, 100 and 500) Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons to {\it transient} MM-pulse spike trains (M=13M=1-3) with independent Gaussian noises. The cross-correlation between the input and output signals is expressed in terms of the WT expansion coefficients. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is evaluated by using the {\it denoising} method within the WT, by which the noise contribution is extracted from output signals. Although the response of a single (N=1) neuron to sub-threshold transient signals with noises is quite unreliable, the transmission fidelity assessed by the cross-correlation and SNR is shown to be much improved by increasing the value of NN: a population of neurons play an indispensable role in the stochastic resonance (SR) for transient spike inputs. It is also shown that in a large-scale ensemble, the transmission fidelity for supra-threshold transient spikes is not significantly degraded by a weak noise which is responsible to SR for sub-threshold inputs.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure

    Dynamics of defect formation

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    A dynamic symmetry-breaking transition with noise and inertia is analyzed. Exact solution of the linearized equation that describes the critical region allows precise calculation (exponent and prefactor) of the number of defects produced as a function of the rate of increase of the critical parameter. The procedure is valid in both the overdamped and underdamped limits. In one space dimension, we perform quantitative comparison with numerical simulations of the nonlinear nonautonomous stochastic partial differential equation and report on signatures of underdamped dynamics.Comment: 4 pages, LaTeX, 4 figures. Submitted to Physical Revie

    New reference ranges for interpreting forced expiratory manoeuvres in infants and implications for clinical interpretation: a multicentre collaboration

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    The raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) technique is commonly used to obtain full forced expiratory manoeuvres from infants, but reference equations derived from 'in-house' equipment have been shown to be inappropriate for current commercially available devices

    The three- and four-nucleon systems from chiral effective field theory

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    Recently developed chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) forces at next-to-leading order (NLO) that describe NN phase shifts up to about 100 MeV fairly well have been applied to 3N and 4N systems. Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations have been solved rigorously. The chiral NLO forces depend on a momentum cut-off \Lambda lying between 540-600 MeV/c. The resulting 3N and 4N binding energies are in the same range as found using standard NN potentials. In additon, low-energy 3N scattering observables are very well reproduced like for standard NN forces. Surprisingly, the long standing A_y-puzzle is resolved at NLO. The cut-off dependence of the scattering observables is rather mild.Comment: 4 pp, revtex, 3 figure

    Sensitivity of nucleon-nucleus scattering to the off-shell behavior of on-shell equivalent NN potentials

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    The sensitivity of nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering to the off-shell behavior of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions is investigated when on-shell equivalent nucleon-nucleon potentials are used. The study is based on applications of the full-folding optical model potential for an explicit treatment of the off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. Applications were made at beam energies between 40 and 500 MeV for proton scattering from 40Ca and 208Pb. We use the momentum-dependent Paris potential and its local on-shell equivalent as obtained with the Gelfand-Levitan and Marchenko inversion formalism for the two nucleon Schroedinger equation. Full-folding calculations for nucleon-nucleus scattering show small fluctuations in the corresponding observables. This implies that off-shell features of the NN interaction cannot be unambiguously identified with these processes. Inversion potentials were also constructed directly from NN phase-shift data (SM94) in the 0-1.3 GeV energy range. Their use in proton-nucleus scattering above 200 MeV provide a superior description of the observables relative to those obtained from current realistic NN potentials. Limitations and scope of our findings are presented and discussed.Comment: 17 pages tightened REVTeX, 8 .ps figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Early Lung Function Testing in Infants with Aortic Arch Anomalies Identifies Patients at Risk for Airway Obstruction

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    BACKGROUND: Aortic arch anomalies (AAA) are rare cardio-vascular anomalies. Right-sided and double-sided aortic arch anomalies (RAAA, DAAA) are distinguished, both may cause airway obstructions. We studied the degree of airway obstruction in infants with AAA by neonatal lung function testing (LFT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients (10 RAAA and 7 DAAA) with prenatal diagnosis of AAA were investigated. The median (range) post conception age at LFT was 40.3 (36.6-44.1) weeks, median body weight 3400 (2320-4665) g. Measurements included tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL), airway resistance (R(aw)) by bodyplethysmography and the maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (V'(max)FRC) by rapid thoracic-abdominal compression (RTC) technique. V'(max)FRC was also expressed in Z-scores, based on published gender-, age and height-specific reference values. RESULTS: Abnormal lung function tests were seen in both RAAA and DAAA infants. Compared to RAAA infants, infants with DAAA had significantly more expiratory flow limitations in the TBFVL, (86% vs. 30%, p<0.05) and a significantly increased R(aw) (p = 0.015). Despite a significant correlation between R(aw) and the Z-score of V'(max)FRC (r = 0.740, p<0.001), there were no statistically significant differences in V'(max)FRC and it's Z-scores between RAAA and DAAA infants. 4 (24%) infants (2 RAAA, 2 DAAA) were near or below the 10(th) percentile of V'(max)FRC, indicating a high risk for airway obstruction. CONCLUSION: Both, infants with RAAA and DAAA, are at risk for airway obstruction and early LFT helps to identify and to monitor these infants. This may support the decision for therapeutic interventions before clinical symptoms arise
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