492 research outputs found

### Measurement of the parity violating 6S-7S transition amplitude in cesium achieved within 2 \times 10^{-13} atomic-unit accuracy by stimulated-emission detection

We exploit the process of asymmetry amplification by stimulated emission
which provides an original method for parity violation (PV) measurements in a
highly forbidden atomic transition. The method involves measurements of a
chiral, transient, optical gain of a cesium vapor on the 7S-6P_{3/2}
transition, probed after it is excited by an intense, linearly polarized,
collinear laser, tuned to resonance for one hyperfine line of the forbidden
6S-7S transition in a longitudinal electric field. We report here a 3.5 fold
increase, of the one-second-measurement sensitivity, and subsequent reduction
by a factor of 3.5 of the statistical accuracy compared with our previous
result [J. Gu\'ena et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 (2003)]. Decisive
improvements to the set-up include an increased repetition rate, better
extinction of the probe beam at the end of the probe pulse and, for the first
time to our knowledge, the following: a polarization-tilt magnifier,
quasi-suppression of beam reflections at the cell windows, and a Cs cell with
electrically conductive windows. We also present real-time tests of systematic
effects, consistency checks on the data, as well as a 1% accurate measurement
of the electric field seen by the atoms, from atomic signals. PV measurements
performed in seven different vapor cells agree within the statistical error.
Our present result is compatible with the more precise Boulder result within
our present relative statistical accuracy of 2.6%, corresponding to a 2 \times
10^{-13} atomic-unit uncertainty in E_1^{pv}. Theoretical motivations for
further measurements are emphasized and we give a brief overview of a recent
proposal that would allow the uncertainty to be reduced to the 0.1% level by
creating conditions where asymmetry amplification is much greater.Comment: Article 21 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables Typos, addition of few comments
and little more data (1 week) leading to a slight reduction of the error bar
Accepted for publication in Phys.Rev.

### A linear Stark shift in dressed atoms as a signal to measure a nuclear anapole moment with a cold atom fountain or interferometer

We demonstrate theoretically the existence of a linear dc Stark shift of the
individual substates of an alkali atom in its ground state, dressed by a
circularly polarized laser field. It arises from the electroweak nuclear
anapole moment violating P but not T. It is characterized by the pseudoscalar
equal to the mixed product formed with the photon angular momentum and static
electric and magnetic fields. We derive the relevant left-right asymmetry with
its complete signature in a field configuration selected for a precision
measurement with cold atom beams. The 3,3 to 4,3 Cs hyperfine-transition
frequency shift amounts to 7 $\mu$Hz for a laser power of about 1 kW at 877 nm,
E=100 kV/cm and B larger than 0.5 G.Comment: Article, 4 pages, 2 figure

### A new Manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in Cesium: a Chiral Optical Gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S Excitation

We have detected, by using stimulated emission, an Atomic Parity Violation
(APV) in the form of a chiral optical gain of a cesium vapor on the 7S -
6P$_{3/2}$ transition,consecutive to linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation. We
demonstrate the validity of this detection method of APV, by presenting a 9%
accurate measurement of expected sign and magnitude. We underline several
advantages of this entirely new approach in which the cylindrical symmetry of
the set-up can be fully exploited. Future measurements at the percent level
will provide an important cross-check of an existing more precise result
obtained by a different method.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

### Tunable Superconducting Phase Transition in Metal-Decorated Graphene Sheets

Using typical experimental techniques it is difficult to separate the effects
of carrier density and disorder on the superconducting transition in two
dimensions. Using a simple fabrication procedure based on metal layer
dewetting, we have produced graphene sheets decorated with a non-percolating
network of nanoscale tin clusters. These metal clusters both efficiently dope
the graphene substrate and induce long-range superconducting correlations. This
allows us to study the superconducting transition at fixed disorder and
variable carrier concentration. We find that despite structural inhomogeneity
on mesoscopic length scales (10-100 nm), this material behaves electronically
as a homogenous dirty superconductor. Our simple self-assembly method
establishes graphene as an ideal tunable substrate for studying induced
two-dimensional electronic systems at fixed disorder and our technique can
readily be extended to other order parameters such as magnetism

### QED corrections to the parity-nonconserving 6s-7s amplitude in $^{133}$Cs

The complete gauge-invariant set of the one-loop QED corrections to the
parity-nonconserving 6s-7s amplitude in $^{133}$Cs is evaluated to all orders
in $\alpha Z$ using a local version of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock potential. The
calculations are peformed in both length and velocity gauges for the absorbed
photon. The total binding QED correction is found to be -0.27(3)%, which
differs from previous evaluations of this effect. The weak charge of
$^{133}$Cs, derived using two most accurate values of the vector transition
polarizability $\beta$, is $Q_W=-72.57(46)$ for $\beta = 26.957(51) a_{\rm
B}^3$ and $Q_W=-73.09(54)$ for $\beta= 27.15(11)a_{\rm B}^3$. The first value
deviates by $1.1\sigma$ from the prediction of the Standard Model, while the
second one is in perfect agreement with it.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, 2 table

### Scalable quantum computing with Josephson charge qubits

A goal of quantum information technology is to control the quantum state of a
system, including its preparation, manipulation, and measurement. However,
scalability to many qubits and controlled connectivity between any selected
qubits are two of the major stumbling blocks to achieve quantum computing (QC).
Here we propose an experimental method, using Josephson charge qubits, to
efficiently solve these two central problems. The proposed QC architecture is
scalable since any two charge qubits can be effectively coupled by an
experimentally accessible inductance. More importantly, we formulate an
efficient and realizable QC scheme that requires only one (instead of two or
more) two-bit operation to implement conditional gates.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

### Demonstration of an optical polarization magnifier with low birefringence

In any polarimetric measurement technique, enhancing the laser polarization
change of a laser beam before it reaches the analyzer can help in improving the
sensitivity. This can be performed using an optical component having a large
linear dichroism, the enhancement factor being equal to the square root of the
ratio of the two transmission factors. A pile of parallel plates at Brewster
incidence looks appropriate for realizing such a polarization magnifier. In
this paper, we address the problem raised by the interference in the plates and
between the plates, which affects the measurement by giving rise to
birefringence. We demonstrate that wedged plates provide a convenient and
efficient way to avoid this interference. We have implemented and characterized
devices with 4 and 6 wedged plates at Brewster incidence which have led to a
decisive improvement of the signal to noise ratio in our ongoing Parity
Violation measurement.Comment: 08 october 200

### A quantitative study of quasiparticle traps using the single-Cooper-pair-transistor

We use radio-frequency reflectometry to measure quasiparticle tunneling rates
in the single-Cooper-pair-transistor. Devices with and without quasiparticle
traps in proximity to the island are studied. A $10^2$ to $10^3$-fold reduction
in the quasiparticle tunneling rate onto the island is observed in the case of
quasiparticle traps. In the quasiparticle trap samples we also measure a
commensurate decrease in quasiparticle tunneling rate off the island.Comment: 4 pages, 4 fig

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