35 research outputs found

    Computational Method for Arbitrarily-Shaped Elastic Objects in Free-Surface Flows

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    Source: ICHE Conference Archive - https://mdi-de.baw.de/icheArchiv

    EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN APPROACH FOR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FLUIDS AND MULTIPLE DEFORMABLE SWELLING OBJECTS USING MASS-SPRING MODEL

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    A computation method was proposed for the interactions between Newtonian fluids and deformable solid objects which swell by absorbing the surrounding flids. The direct-forcing immersed boundary method and mass-spring model are used to estimate the fluid-solid interactive forces and deformations of the solid. The swelling of the object is simulated by changing the natural lengths of the spring models. In addition, the solid-solid interaction is treated by utilizing the distinct element method. The proposed method was applied to three numerical experiments. As a result, it was shown that the basic behaviors of the swelling-deformable objects are reasonably calculated with the present method

    Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2015 for the treatment of vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer

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    BackgroundVulvar cancer and vaginal cancer are relatively rare tumors, and there had been no established treatment principles or guidelines to treat these rare tumors in Japan. The first version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology (JSGO) guidelines for the treatment of vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer was published in 2015 in Japanese.ObjectiveThe JSGO committee decided to publish the English version of the JSGO guidelines worldwide, and hope it will be a useful guide to physicians in a similar situation as in Japan.MethodsThe guideline was created according to the basic principles in creating the guidelines of JSGO.ResultsThe guidelines consist of five chapters and five algorithms. Prior to the first chapter, basic items are described including staging classification and history, classification of histology, and definition of the methods of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy to give the reader a better understanding of the contents of the guidelines for these rare tumors. The first chapter gives an overview of the guidelines, including the basic policy of the guidelines. The second chapter discusses vulvar cancer, the third chapter discusses vaginal cancer, and the fourth chapter discusses vulvar Paget’s disease and malignant melanoma. Each chapter includes clinical questions, recommendations, backgrounds, objectives, explanations, and references. The fifth chapter provides supplemental data for the drugs that are mentioned in the explanation of clinical questions.ConclusionOverall, the objective of these guidelines is to clearly delineate the standard of care for vulvar and vaginal cancer with the goal of ensuring a high standard of care for all women diagnosed with these rare diseases

    Nivolumab Versus Gemcitabine or Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin for Patients With Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer: Open-Label, Randomized Trial in Japan (NINJA)

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    PURPOSE: This phase III, multicenter, randomized, open-label study investigated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab versus chemotherapy (gemcitabine [GEM] or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD]) in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer, received ≤ 1 regimen after diagnosis of resistance, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of ≤ 1. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to nivolumab (240 mg once every 2 weeks [as one cycle]) or chemotherapy (GEM 1000 mg/m2 for 30 minutes [once on days 1, 8, and 15] followed by a week's rest [as one cycle], or PLD 50 mg/m2 once every 4 weeks [as one cycle]). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, duration of response, and safety. RESULTS: Patients (n = 316) were randomly assigned to nivolumab (n = 157) or GEM or PLD (n = 159) between October 2015 and December 2017. Median OS was 10.1 (95% CI, 8.3 to 14.1) and 12.1 (95% CI, 9.3 to 15.3) months with nivolumab and GEM or PLD, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3; P = .808). Median PFS was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 2.2) and 3.8 (95% CI, 3.6 to 4.2) months with nivolumab and GEM or PLD, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9; P = .002). There was no statistical difference in overall response rate between groups (7.6% v 13.2%; odds ratio, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.3; P = .191). Median duration of response was numerically longer with nivolumab than GEM or PLD (18.7 v 7.4 months). Fewer treatment-related adverse events were observed with nivolumab versus GEM or PLD (61.5% v 98.1%), with no additional or new safety risks. CONCLUSION: Although well-tolerated, nivolumab did not improve OS and showed worse PFS compared with GEM or PLD in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

    Numerical Prediction for Damping Effects of Suspended Deformable Bodies on Wave Motions of Free-Surface Flows

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    The damping effects on the free-surface motions due to the presence of the deformable solid bodies suspended in the fluid were numerically investigated. The computational method is based on a full Eulerian model that can deal with the interactions between Newtonian fluids and visco-hyperelastic solid bodies. In the numerical predictions, the free-surface motions caused by the so-called dam-break conditions, including four spherical visco-hyperelastic bodies, were calculated with two cases of non-dimensional shear moduli, G = 0.1 and 10.0, of the visco-hyperelastic bodies, which have the same density as that of the liquid phase. As a result of the computations, the following reasonable results were obtained; when the solid bodies are highly flexible (G = 0.1), the free-surface motions are almost the same as those having no solid bodies. In contrast, it was demonstrated that the damping effects are obviously large in case that the stiffness of solid bodies increases (G = 10.0)

    Computation of non-isothermal and compressible low Mach number gas flows by fully explicit scheme using control method for speed of sound

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    In this study, we propose a new fully explicit scheme for non-isothermal and compressible low Mach number gas flows based on a fractional step method and a control method for the speed of sound. Since the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition based on the speed of sound is improved according to an artificial coefficient for pressure fluctuation terms, the time increment in the proposed method can be set on the same order as that of a conventional semi-implicit method which treats pressure terms in momentum and energy equations implicitly. As a result of the application to the natural convection in a square cavity, it is demonstrated that the proposed fully explicit method enables to conduct computations reasonably about 6 ~ 8 times faster than the conventional semi-implicit method by setting the appropriate value of the artificial coefficient for pressure fluctuation terms
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