14 research outputs found

    Analysis of indications and route of hysterectomy for benign conditions

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    Background: Hysterectomy is the most common operation performed by gynecologist, next to caesarean section. The primary focus of this study was to review the indications and surgical technique of hysterectomy.Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the department of Obstetrics and gynecology, in collaboration with Department of Pathology.  All women in the reproductive age group and post-menopausal age who underwent hysterectomy with or without salpingo-oophorectomy were included in this study.Results: In our study, out of 100 patients, clinical indication was fibroid in 45 (45%) patients, menorrhagia in 15 (15%) patients, adenomyosis in 25 (25%) patients, uterovaginal prolapse in 5 (5%) patients, endometrial polyp in 5 (5%) patients and ovarian tumor in 5 (5%) patients. Histo-pathological diagnosis was leiomyoma in 55 (55%), adenomyosis in 30 (30%), endometrial polyp in 5 (5%), endometrial hyperplasia in 5 (5%) and serous cystadenoma of ovary in 5 (5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 46 (46%) patients, vaginal hysterectomy in 44 (44.33%) patients while laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed in 5 (6.66%) patients.Conclusions: In this study, most common indication for hysterectomy was fibroid uterus and it was correlated well with histopathology. Abdominal & vaginal hysterectomies were performed in almost equal number

    Menstrual hygiene practices in young girls of urban India

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    Background: Menstrual hygiene is an important aspect in the life of young girls.The present study aims at assessing the knowledge regarding menstruation and hygienic practices and perceptions during menstruation.Methods: It was a cross sectional study, conducted among 100 young girls of 20-22 years age to assess the awareness of menstrual hygiene. Data was collected by pre-tested questionnaire. Statistics was calculated in percentages.Results: Out of 100 girls, 71 (71%) knew about menstruation before menarche while 29 (29%) did not have any knowledge. 71 (71%) girls knew the cause of menstruation as physiological, 18 (18%) girls didn’t know the cause, 11 (11%) girls still believe it as curse of God. 68 (68%) girls knew the source of bleeding during menstruation as uterus, 20 (20%) girls thought it as vagina while 12 (12%) thought it as urethra. 64% girls use sanitary pads during menstruation, 19% girls used old cloth while 17% girls used new cloth during menstruation as adsorbent material. 9% girls dispose pads or used cloth in dustbin, 19% girls flush them in toilet while 12% girls throw them roadside. 96% girls avoid going to temple, 68% girls restrict their daily activities, 56% girls avoid going to functions, 50% girls avoid going to kitchen, 50% girls avoid going to kitchen while 45% girls avoid touching things at home.Conclusions: It is very important that young girls should be educated about the importance of maintaining hygiene during menstruation to prevent the risk of reproductive tract infections

    Cervical cancer screening and prevention: how aware is the Indian woman?

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    Background: Carcinoma of the cervix is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. It is the commonest cancer among Indian women. Awareness regarding cervical cancer and its prevention is quite low amongst Indian women. The Pap test is a simple and cost-effective technique for early diagnosis of cervical cancer.Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in the months of September and October 2018. We included 200 women between 30 and 60 years of age.Results: In present study, out of 200 respondents, 160 (80%) respondents got married after 21 years of age while 40 (20%) respondents got married below 21 years of age. 148 (74%) respondents had 2 children, 30 (15%) respondents had one child while 22 (11%) respondents had 3 children. 166 (83%) had heard about cervical cancer, 24 (12%) knew that cervical cancer can be cured if detected in early stage while only 10 (5%) knew that it can be prevented. 54 (27%) respondents knew that pap smear test should be done as screening test to detect cervical cancer in early stage while 22 (11%) respondents knew about HPV vaccine as preventive measure.Conclusions: In present study, though women have heard about cervical cancer, proper knowledge was very less. Also, awareness about HPV vaccine and Pap smear was less. There is need for proper information and facilities for pap smear and HPV vaccination

    Weight awareness among medical students

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    Background: Overweight and obesity is a global issue. It needs to be tackled at adolescent and young age. Aim of our study was to evaluate weight awareness, prevalence of overweight and obesity in medical students.Methods: 200 medical students of 18-20 years were included in this cross-sectional study.Results: Out of 100 girls, 51 (51%) girls had normal BMI, 19 (19%) were overweight, 17 (17%) girls were obese while 13 (13%) girls were underweight. Out of 100 boys, 66 (66%) boys were having normal weight, 16 (16%) boys were underweight, 14 (14%) boys were overweight and 4 (4%) boys were obese. Sixty-one (61%) girls were doing exercise >3 times in a week while 39 (39%) girls were doing exercise 3 times in a week.Conclusions: Issue of overweight and obesity needs to be focused more

    Adverse effects of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section

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    Background: Obstetric anaesthetists while providing anaesthesia for caesarean sections, provide care for both the mother and the unborn baby. This study was performed to evaluate the adverse effects of spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section.   Methods: The present study is a prospective observational study carried out on 100 full-term, low risk pregnant patients who had caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia at Varun Arjun medical college, Shahjahanpur, U. P., India from January 2022 to December 2022. Results: In our study, 43 (43%) patients were between 26-30 years, 32 (32%) patients were between 31-35 years, 16 (16%) patients were between 36-40 years. The 62 (62%) patients were primigravida while 38 (38%) patients were multigravida. The 66 (66%) patients were delivered by emergency caesarean section while 34 (34%) were delivered by emergency caesarean section. In our study, adverse anaesthetic effects were less. 12 (12%) patients had spinal hypotension, 11 (11%) patients had spinal headache, 10 (10%) patients had pruritus, 9 (9%) patients had shivering, 5 (5%) patients had nausea and vomiting, 4 (4%) patients had less visceral pain and neonatal Apgar score each, 3 (3%) patients had failed regional anaesthesia, 3 (3%) patients had bradycardia while 2 (2%) patients had high spinal anaesthesia, 10 (10%) patients had visceral pain. Conclusions: In our study, combination of bupivacaine and a low dose of fentanyl (0.25 μg/kg) provided excellent surgical anaesthesia with short-lasting postoperative analgesia. There were very few adverse side effects

    Antenatal screening for aneuploidy

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    Background: It is uncertain how best to screen pregnant women for the presence of fetal Down's syndrome and other aneuploides, whether to perform first-trimester screening or to perform second-trimester screening or both.Methods: Women with singleton and multiple pregnancies underwent first-trimester combined screening (measurement of nuchal translucency, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A [PAPP-A], and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin at 10 weeks 3 days through 13 weeks 6 days of gestation). Also, second-trimester quadruple screening (measurement of alpha-fetoprotein, total human chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated estriol, and inhibin A) and triple marker test was done from 15 to 18 weeks of gestation.Results: 12 (5%) patients had positive screening test for combined screening in first trimester, 6 (10.9%) patients had positive screening for quadruple test while 1 (2.85%) patients had positive screening for triple test. Out of 19 positive screening, 16 (84.21%) had their amniocentesis done for confirmation of diagnosis. In all 16 patients, chromosomal analysis was normal. Not a single patient turned out to have a baby with Down syndrome or any other aneuploidy. False positive rate for combined screening in first trimester was 5%, false positive rate for quadruple test in second trimester was 10.9%, false positive rate for triple marker test in second trimester was 2.85%.Conclusions: First-trimester combined screening is better than second-trimester quadruple test or triple marker test for syndrome or any other aneuploidy

    Preventive gynaecology: awareness, attitude and practices of gynecologists

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    Background: Gynecologists are aware of screening tests of all gynecological malignancies. However, attitude and practices do not match with this. Present study was conducted in 214 gynecologists to evaluate awareness, attitude and practices of preventive gynecology.Methods: A survey was conducted among 214 gynecologists of Nagpur, using a questionnaire. This evaluated implementation of screening and preventive measures used by them for self-protection as well as for the women seeking their services. Their attitude regarding HPV vaccine as a preventive measure was also noted.Results: In present study, 160 (74.76%) gynecologists routinely advice pap smear to the patients, 54 (25.23%) gynecologists advice pap smear to the patients only if it is indicated. 102 (47.66%) gynecologists and spouses have got their own pap smear done. 192 (89.71%) were doing their self breast examination regularly and 66 (30.84%) had done their mammography. 168 (78.50%) had their ultrasound done and 98 (45.79%) had their P/V done. 132 (61.68%) are advising HPV vaccination to the patients routinely and 48 (22.42%) gynecologists had given HPV vaccination to their daughters.Conclusions: Proper and effective utilization of available facilities would depend on creating better understanding and change in their outlook. Stepping up and strengthening of preventive health care services is essential

    Partnership of obstetrician and neonatologist to improve neonatal outcome in peri-viable and premature babies: a cross sectional survey

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    Background: Collaboration between obstetricians and paediatricians/Neonatologists provides the best quality care to infants and their mothers. Present study was conducted to evaluate the practices of obstetricians and neonatologists’ partnership to improve neonatal outcome.Methods: Present cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on 50 Obstetricians and 50 paediatricians/ neonatologists during October 2021 to evaluate the practices of obstetricians and neonatologists’ partnership to improve neonatal outcome.Results: In present study, among 50 obstetricians and 50 pediatricians/ neonatologists, all i.e., 100 (100%) feel that partnership of obstetrician and neonatologist in managing pre-viable pregnancy improves neonatal outcome. Among 50 obstetricians, all i.e., 50 (100%) said that they will explain the need for caesarean section and if necessary classical caesarean section. All said they will explain the need and advantages of steroids. Among 50 pediatricians/ neonatologists, majority i.e., 44 (88%) said that they will explain the need for caesarean section and if necessary classical caesarean section. All said they will explain the need and advantages of steroids. Among 50 obstetricians, majority i.e., 45 (90%) said that they will explain thoroughly the risk to the baby, survival, short term complications and disability, 30 (60%) each said that they will explain thoroughly the risk of RDS, need of resuscitation, need of NICU for baby, uncertainty of hospital stay and outcome. Among 50 pediatricians/ neonatologists, all i.e., 50 (100%) each said that they will explain thoroughly the risk to the baby, survival, short term complications and disability, the risk of RDS, need of resuscitation, need of NICU for baby, uncertainty of hospital stay and outcome. Expressions of pediatricians/ neonatologists were significantly different on counselling aspects of mother and baby.Conclusions: In present study, majority of obstetricians and pediatricians/ neonatologists were of opinion that partnership between them surely improves neonatal outcome in peri viable and preterm babies. 
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