139 research outputs found

    Determinasi Dan Analisis Finger Print Tanaman Murbei (Morus Alba Lour) Sebagai Bahan Baku Obat Tradisional Dengan Metode Spektroskopi Ft-ir Dan Kemometrik

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    DETERMINASI DAN ANALISIS FINGER PRINT TANAMAN MURBEI (Morus alba Lour) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU OBAT TRADISIONAL DENGAN METODE SPEKTROSKOPI FT-IR DAN KEMOMETRIK Abd.Halim Umar1), Reny Syahruni1), Asril Burhan1), Fadillah Maryam1), Astuti Amin2), Marwati2), Lisa Rassang Masero2) 1)Akademi Farmasi Kebangsaan Makassar 2)Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Makassar ABSTRACT Mulberry (Morus albaLour) is amedicinal plant that is widely grown and used as medicine in Indonesia. Composition chemistry contained in the drug of nature is one composition complex, can be determined by using a spectroscopic methods. This study to determination origin mulberry that comes from some areas as information and quality control using a method Fourier TransformInfra-Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and chemometrick. FT-IR analysis of mulberry (Morus albaLour) that grow in different places in geography, obtained results are relatively similar spectrum of 9 types of the samples. FT-IR measure ments combined with chemometrick. Group 1 (Cendana), group 2 (Baraka and Palangga), group 3 (Kalambe 'and Cina), Group 4 (Tikala and Bori), group 5 (Lemo) and group 6 (Solie). Key words: Mulberry, FT-IR, PCA, Chemometrick ABSTRAK Murbei (Morus alba Lour) merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang banyak tumbuh dan digunakan sebagai obat tradisional di Indonesia. Komposisi kimia yang terkandung dalam obat bahan alam merupakan suatu komposisi yang kompleks, dapat ditentukan dengan menggunakan metode spektroskopi. Penelitian ini untuk mendeterminasikan asal murbei yang berasal dari beberapa daerah sebagai informasi dan kendali mutu dengan menggunakan metode Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) dan kemometrik. Analisis FT-IR tanaman murbei (Morus alba Lour), diperoleh hasil spektrum yang relatif sama dari 9 jenis sampel dari daerah yang berbeda. Spektrum FT-IR yang diperoleh dikombinasikan dengan metode kemometrik menggunakan program Minitab versi 16 dan The Unscrambler¬ģ 9.7. Hasil pengelompokan yaitu, Kelompok 1 (Cendana), Kelompok 2 (Baraka dan Palangga), Kelompok 3 (Kalambe' dan Cina), Kelompok 4 (Tikala dan Bori), Kelompok 5 (Lemo) dan Kelompok 6 (Solie)

    Caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression in breast cancer: caspase-3 is associated with survival

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    Impaired apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Caspase-3 and -8 are key regulators of the apoptotic response and have been shown to interact with the calpain family, a group of cysteine proteases, during tumorigenesis. The current study sought to investigate the prognostic potential of caspase-3 and -8 in breast cancer, as well as the prognostic value of combinatorial caspase and calpain expression. A large cohort (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1902) of early stage invasive breast cancer patients was used to explore the expression of caspase-3 and -8. Protein expression was examined using standard immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. High caspase-3 expression, but not caspase-8, is significantly associated with adverse breast cancer-specific survival (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.008 and P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.056, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that caspase-3 remained an independent factor when confounding factors were included (hazard ratio (HR) 1.347, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.086‚Äď1.670; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.007). The analyses in individual subgroups demonstrated the significance of caspase-3 expression in clinical outcomes in receptor positive (ER, PR or HER2) subgroups (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001) and in non-basal like subgroup (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.029). Calpain expression had been previously assessed. Significant association was also found between high caspase-3/high calpain-1 and breast cancer-specific survival in the total patient cohort (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.005) and basal-like subgroup (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.034), as indicated by Kaplan‚ÄďMeier analysis. Caspase-3 expression is associated with adverse breast cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients, and provides additional prognostic values in distinct phenotypes. Combinatorial caspase and calpain expression can predict worse prognosis, especially in basal-like phenotypes. The findings warrant further validation studies in independent multi-centre patient cohorts

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Maternal mortality and morbidity burden in the Eastern Mediterranean region : findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study

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    Assessing the burden of maternal mortality is important for tracking progress and identifying public health gaps. This paper provides an overview of the burden of maternal mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. We used the results of the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to explore maternal mortality in the EMR countries. The maternal mortality ratio in the EMR decreased 16.3% from 283 (241-328) maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 237 (188-293) in 2015. Maternal mortality ratio was strongly correlated with socio-demographic status, where the lowest-income countries contributed the most to the burden of maternal mortality in the region. Progress in reducing maternal mortality in the EMR has accelerated in the past 15 years, but the burden remains high. Coordinated and rigorous efforts are needed to make sure that adequate and timely services and interventions are available for women at each stage of reproductive life

    Elective Cancer Surgery in COVID-19-Free Surgical Pathways During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: An International, Multicenter, Comparative Cohort Study.