9,200 research outputs found

    On the problem of mass-dependence of the two-point function of the real scalar free massive field on the light cone

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    We investigate the generally assumed inconsistency in light cone quantum field theory that the restriction of a massive, real, scalar, free field to the nullplane ő£={x0+x3=0}\Sigma=\{x^0+x^3=0\} is independent of mass \cite{LKS}, but the restriction of the two-point function depends on it (see, e.g., \cite{NakYam77, Yam97}). We resolve this inconsistency by showing that the two-point function has no canonical restriction to ő£\Sigma in the sense of distribution theory. Only the so-called tame restriction of the two-point function exists which we have introduced in \cite{Ull04sub}. Furthermore, we show that this tame restriction is indeed independent of mass. Hence the inconsistency appears only by the erroneous assumption that the two-point function would have a (canonical) restriction to ő£\Sigma.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    Presentation of the 1995 A.N. Richards Award to François Morel

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    Tumor Biology and Racial Disparities in Reconstruction After Mastectomy: A SEER Database Analysis

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    Introduction: Significant disparities in immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy have persisted, and may even be increasing, despite large-scale efforts to minimize them, such as the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998. Immediate breast reconstruction has been shown to lead to higher rates of surgical satisfaction, minimize delay in post-operative cancer treatment, and improve the quality of life and overall well-being of mastectomy patients. However only 25-40% of eligible women in the United States receive reconstruction. The rate of reconstruction is even lower in African American and Hispanic women compared to White women. To better understand this disparity, this study uses national population-based data to examine how demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, and disease characteristics interact and affect the rate of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy. Methods: Women with AJCC7 Stage 0-III breast cancer who underwent mastectomy from 2010 to 2012 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. Race, Hispanic ethnicity, age, marital status, insurance status, tumor grade, AJCC7 stage and hormone receptor/ Her2Neu profile were compared between women undergoing mastectomy with IBR and mastectomy alone using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: We identified 51,115 women who underwent mastectomy for Stage 0-III breast cancer from 2010-2012, of whom 15,389 (30.1%) received IBR. On multivariate analysis, age (p Conclusion: The decision to undergo reconstruction after mastectomy is influenced by many factors. Our results show that even after adjusting for tumor characteristics, socioeconomic factors are independently associated with receiving IBR after mastectomy. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that influence the decision to undergo IBR in order to eliminate these persistent disparities

    Inelastic collisions of relativistic electrons with atomic targets assisted by a laser field

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    We consider inelastic collisions between relativistic electrons and atomic targets assisted by a low-frequency laser field in the case when this field is still much weaker than the typical internal fields in the target. Concentrating on target transitions we show that they can be substantially affected by the presence of the laser field. This may occur either via strong modifications in the motion of the relativistic electrons caused by the electron-laser interaction or via the Compton effect when the incident electrons convert laser photon(s) into photons with frequencies equal to target transition frequencies.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Time-resolved X-ray microscopy of nanoparticle aggregates under oscillatory shear

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    Of all current detection techniques with nanometer resolution, only X-ray microscopy allows imaging nanoparticles in suspension. Can it also be used to investigate structural dynamics? When studying response to mechanical stimuli, the challenge lies in applying them with precision comparable to spatial resolution. In the first shear experiments performed in an X-ray microscope, we accomplished this by inserting a piezo actuator driven shear cell into the focal plane of a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Thus shear-induced reorganization of magnetite nanoparticle aggregates could be demonstrated in suspension. As X-ray microscopy proves suitable for studying structural change, new prospects open up in physics at small length scales.Comment: submitted to J. Synchrot. Radia

    Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons

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    A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange (SEHX), is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components, the virial theorem for both exchange and correlation, and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.Comment: 15 pages, supplemental material pd

    Semiclassical model for calculating fully differential ionization cross sections of the H2_2 molecule

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    Fully differential cross sections are calculated for the ionization of H2_2 by fast charged projectiles using a semiclassical model developed previously for the ionization of atoms. The method is tested in case of 4 keV electron and 6 MeV proton projectiles. The obtained results show good agreement with the available experimental data. Interference effects due to the two-center character of the target are also observed and analyzed.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figure

    A novel method for unambiguous ion identification in mixed ion beams extracted from an EBIT

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    A novel technique to identify small fluxes of mixed highly charged ion beams extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is presented and practically demonstrated. The method exploits projectile charge state dependent potential emission of electrons as induced by ion impact on a metal surface to separate ions with identical or very similar mass-to-charge ratio.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figure
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