37 research outputs found

    The neutrophil migration induced by tumour necrosis factor alpha in mice is unaffected by glucocorticoids

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    Macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavities of rats release a neutrophil chemotactic factor (MNCF) in response to stimulation with Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MNCF has been shown to be active in rats treated with dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid that usually inhibits the neutrophil migration induced in this species by interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), IL-8, C5a and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Here we report that macrophages harvested from peritoneal cavities of mice, and stimulated in vitro with LPS, also release a factor that induces neutrophil migration in dexamethasone-treated animals. This chemotactic activity was neutralized by the incubation of the LPS-stimulated macrophage supernatants with a purified polyclonal IgG anti-mouse TNFα. In addition, significant amounts of TNF were detected in the supernatants. The neutrophil migration induced by intraperitoneal administration of recombinant murine TNFα was also unaffected by pretreatment of the mice with dexamethasone. Moreover, neutrophil migration induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS was completely blocked by pretreatment of the mice with a monoclonal antibody against murine TNFα. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that, in contrast to the role of TNF in rats (where it indirectly induces neutrophil migration), in mice, it may be an important mediator in the recruitment of neutrophils to inflammatory sites

    Analisi tipologica e funzionale delle punte à cran epigravettiane della Grotta delle Settecannelle (Viterbo)

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    Tra il 19.000 e il 14.000 BP, nelle culture europee del Paleolitico Superiore, si assiste a una generale diffusione di punte e lame con un incavo laterale (cran) ottenuto con ritocco erto profondo. L’ubiquità di questo fenomeno ha portato molti studiosi (Plisson, Geneste 1989; Onoratini 1978; Lansac 2004) a considerarlo come il riflesso di nuove tecniche di caccia, conseguenti l’invenzione di strumenti che permettevano di lanciare con maggior forza un proiettile e di colpire la preda da maggiore distanza. Frecce, giavellotti, zagaglie venivano scagliati con propulsori, bastoni muniti di un gancio o di un incavo nel quale si appoggiava l’arma da lanciare, oppure con archi

    La grotta di Settecannelle: L’Epigravettiano

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    Il contributo presenta l'analisi tecno-funzionale delle industrie litiche Epigravettiane rinvenute all'interno della Grotta di Settecannell

    Anti-TNP monoclonal antibodies as reagents for enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

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    The aim of this study was to produce anti-TNP monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that could be conjugated and used for the detection of antigen-antibody reactions, in which the antigen specific-antibody had been previously bound to trinitrophenyl (TNP). For hybridoma production, SP2/0-Ag14 cells were fused with spleen cells from mice previously immunized with TNP-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA). After 10 days, enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect anti-TNP antibodies in the supernatants, and five cultures were found to be strictly positive for TNP. Three of these were subsequently cloned by limiting dilution, and 15 clones were chosen for expansion based on the criterion of high reactivity against TNP. Anti-TNP MAbs produced by those clones were isotyped as IgG(1), and purified by Sepharose-protein G affinity cromatography from ascites developed in BALB/c mice. Two purified MAbs (1B2.1B6 and 1B2.1E12) were coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRPO). The resulting conjugates were evaluated in ELISA tests for interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 detection, in which the secondary anti-cytokine antibodies were coupled either to TNP or biotin. The performance of anti-TNP conjugates in these assays were compared with a biotin-streptavidin/peroxidase system. Both types of conjugates were similarly able to detect cytokines with r(2) (linear correlation coefficient) close to unity value. Growth studies of one of those hybridomas (1B2.1B6) yielded a specific growth rate of 0.042 h(-1) and a doubling time of 16.5 h. Data discussed here show that at least two MAbs against TNP raised in this work can be used as a reagent for enzyme immunoassays.19647347

    Giant Cargo-Ships in Antiquity

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