35 research outputs found

    Fish fauna off sandy beaches, in an estuary, and in a seagrass bed in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

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    From February 2015 to January 2016, we collected fish monthly using a beach seine net at two sandy beaches (B1 and B2), in a muddy sand estuary (MS), and in a seagrass bed (SG) in Hiroshima Bay, western Japan. A total of 2920 fish in 50 species were collected. The number of species, individuals, and biomass (total weight) were greater at SG and MS than at B1 and B2. The numerically most dominant species were Favonigobius gymnauchen and Tridentiger trigonocephalus at B1 and B2, F. gymnauchen and Acentrogobius sp. 2 at MS, and Plotosus japonicus and Rudarius ercodes at SG. Fish diversity also was higher at MS and SG than at B1 and B2 throughout the year. Fish assemblages and their patterns varied between sites, indicating that each habitat plays an important role as the nursery ground for different fishes

    Diel changes in the vertical distribution of larval cutlassfish Trichiurus japonicus

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    Diel vertical migration of the cutlassfish Trichiurus japonicus larvae were investigated by consecutive 24-h collections at 3-h intervals at a station in the central Seto Inland Sea, Japan in June and September. Only one larva was collected in June 2017, while 224 and 40 larvae were collected in September 2016 and 2017, respectively. Larvae were present only at depths of ≥ 11 m during the day, whereas they were present at depths of 1, 6, 11 and 16 m during the night. Migration was observed in larvae in which swim bladder formation was completed. A similar pattern, namely nocturnal occurrence at shallow depths only of the developed larvae, was observed in another 24-h survey, suggesting that the swim bladder regulates the upward movement of larvae at night.This work was partly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-13) granted by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan

    “Paralympic Brain”. Compensation and Reorganization of a Damaged Human Brain with Intensive Physical Training

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    The main aim of the study was to evaluate how the brain of a Paralympic athlete with severe disability due to cerebral palsy has reorganized after continuous training geared to enhance performance. Both corticospinal excitability of upper-limb muscles and electromyographic activity during swimming were investigated for a Paralympic gold medalist in swimming competitions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the affected and intact hand motor cortical area revealed that the affected side finger muscle cortical representation area shifted towards the temporal side, and cortico-spinal excitability of the target muscle was prominently facilitated, i.e., the maximum motor evoked potential in the affected side, 6.11 ± 0.19 mV was greater than that in the intact side, 4.52 ± 0.39 mV (mean ± standard error). Electromyographic activities during swimming demonstrated well-coordinated patterns as compared with rather spastic activities observed in the affected side during walking on land. These results suggest that the ability of the brain to reorganize through intensive training in Paralympic athletes can teach interesting lessons to the field neurorehabilitation

    Incomplete Selective Sweeps of Microcystis Population Detected by the Leader-End CRISPR Fragment Analysis in a Natural Pond

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    The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa frequently forms toxic massive blooms and exists in an arms race with its infectious phages in aquatic natural environments, and as a result, has evolved extremely diverse and elaborate antiviral defense systems, including the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) system. Here, to assess Microcystis population dynamics associated with exogenous mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids, we examined the temporal variation in CRISPR genotypes (CTs) by analyzing spacer sequences detected in a natural pond between June and October 2013 when a cyanobacterial bloom occurred. A total of 463,954 high-quality leader-end CRISPR sequences were obtained and the sequences containing spacers were classified into 31 previously reported CTs and 68 new CTs based on the shared order of the leader-end spacers. CT19 was the most dominant genotype (32%) among the 16 most common CTs, followed by CT52 (14%) and CT58 (9%). Spacer repertoires of CT19 showed mainly two different types; CT19origin, which was identical to the CT19 spacer repertoire of previously isolated strains, and CT19new+, which contained a new spacer at the leader-end of the CRISPR region of CT19origin, which were present in almost equal abundance, accounting for up to 99.94% of CT19 sequences. Surprisingly, we observed the spacer repertoires of the second to tenth spacers of CT19origin at the most leader-end of proto-genotype sequences of CT19origin. These were observed during the sampling in this study and our previous study at the same ecosystem in 2010 and 2011, suggesting these CTs persisted from 2011 to 2013 in spite of phage pressure. The leader-end variants were observed in other CT genotypes. These findings indicated an incomplete selective sweep of Microcystis populations. We explained the phenomenon as follow; the abundance of Microcystis varied seasonally and drastically, resulting that Microcystis populations experience a bottleneck once a year, and thereby founder effects following a bottleneck mean that older CTs have an equal chance of increasing in prevalence as the CTs generated following acquisition of newer spacers

    Table_1.XLSX

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    <p>The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa frequently forms toxic massive blooms and exists in an arms race with its infectious phages in aquatic natural environments, and as a result, has evolved extremely diverse and elaborate antiviral defense systems, including the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) system. Here, to assess Microcystis population dynamics associated with exogenous mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids, we examined the temporal variation in CRISPR genotypes (CTs) by analyzing spacer sequences detected in a natural pond between June and October 2013 when a cyanobacterial bloom occurred. A total of 463,954 high-quality leader-end CRISPR sequences were obtained and the sequences containing spacers were classified into 31 previously reported CTs and 68 new CTs based on the shared order of the leader-end spacers. CT19 was the most dominant genotype (32%) among the 16 most common CTs, followed by CT52 (14%) and CT58 (9%). Spacer repertoires of CT19 showed mainly two different types; CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which was identical to the CT19 spacer repertoire of previously isolated strains, and CT19<sub>new+</sub>, which contained a new spacer at the leader-end of the CRISPR region of CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which were present in almost equal abundance, accounting for up to 99.94% of CT19 sequences. Surprisingly, we observed the spacer repertoires of the second to tenth spacers of CT19<sub>origin</sub> at the most leader-end of proto-genotype sequences of CT19<sub>origin</sub>. These were observed during the sampling in this study and our previous study at the same ecosystem in 2010 and 2011, suggesting these CTs persisted from 2011 to 2013 in spite of phage pressure. The leader-end variants were observed in other CT genotypes. These findings indicated an incomplete selective sweep of Microcystis populations. We explained the phenomenon as follow; the abundance of Microcystis varied seasonally and drastically, resulting that Microcystis populations experience a bottleneck once a year, and thereby founder effects following a bottleneck mean that older CTs have an equal chance of increasing in prevalence as the CTs generated following acquisition of newer spacers.</p

    Image_1.PDF

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    <p>The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa frequently forms toxic massive blooms and exists in an arms race with its infectious phages in aquatic natural environments, and as a result, has evolved extremely diverse and elaborate antiviral defense systems, including the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) system. Here, to assess Microcystis population dynamics associated with exogenous mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids, we examined the temporal variation in CRISPR genotypes (CTs) by analyzing spacer sequences detected in a natural pond between June and October 2013 when a cyanobacterial bloom occurred. A total of 463,954 high-quality leader-end CRISPR sequences were obtained and the sequences containing spacers were classified into 31 previously reported CTs and 68 new CTs based on the shared order of the leader-end spacers. CT19 was the most dominant genotype (32%) among the 16 most common CTs, followed by CT52 (14%) and CT58 (9%). Spacer repertoires of CT19 showed mainly two different types; CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which was identical to the CT19 spacer repertoire of previously isolated strains, and CT19<sub>new+</sub>, which contained a new spacer at the leader-end of the CRISPR region of CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which were present in almost equal abundance, accounting for up to 99.94% of CT19 sequences. Surprisingly, we observed the spacer repertoires of the second to tenth spacers of CT19<sub>origin</sub> at the most leader-end of proto-genotype sequences of CT19<sub>origin</sub>. These were observed during the sampling in this study and our previous study at the same ecosystem in 2010 and 2011, suggesting these CTs persisted from 2011 to 2013 in spite of phage pressure. The leader-end variants were observed in other CT genotypes. These findings indicated an incomplete selective sweep of Microcystis populations. We explained the phenomenon as follow; the abundance of Microcystis varied seasonally and drastically, resulting that Microcystis populations experience a bottleneck once a year, and thereby founder effects following a bottleneck mean that older CTs have an equal chance of increasing in prevalence as the CTs generated following acquisition of newer spacers.</p

    Table_3.xlsx

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    <p>The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa frequently forms toxic massive blooms and exists in an arms race with its infectious phages in aquatic natural environments, and as a result, has evolved extremely diverse and elaborate antiviral defense systems, including the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) system. Here, to assess Microcystis population dynamics associated with exogenous mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids, we examined the temporal variation in CRISPR genotypes (CTs) by analyzing spacer sequences detected in a natural pond between June and October 2013 when a cyanobacterial bloom occurred. A total of 463,954 high-quality leader-end CRISPR sequences were obtained and the sequences containing spacers were classified into 31 previously reported CTs and 68 new CTs based on the shared order of the leader-end spacers. CT19 was the most dominant genotype (32%) among the 16 most common CTs, followed by CT52 (14%) and CT58 (9%). Spacer repertoires of CT19 showed mainly two different types; CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which was identical to the CT19 spacer repertoire of previously isolated strains, and CT19<sub>new+</sub>, which contained a new spacer at the leader-end of the CRISPR region of CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which were present in almost equal abundance, accounting for up to 99.94% of CT19 sequences. Surprisingly, we observed the spacer repertoires of the second to tenth spacers of CT19<sub>origin</sub> at the most leader-end of proto-genotype sequences of CT19<sub>origin</sub>. These were observed during the sampling in this study and our previous study at the same ecosystem in 2010 and 2011, suggesting these CTs persisted from 2011 to 2013 in spite of phage pressure. The leader-end variants were observed in other CT genotypes. These findings indicated an incomplete selective sweep of Microcystis populations. We explained the phenomenon as follow; the abundance of Microcystis varied seasonally and drastically, resulting that Microcystis populations experience a bottleneck once a year, and thereby founder effects following a bottleneck mean that older CTs have an equal chance of increasing in prevalence as the CTs generated following acquisition of newer spacers.</p

    Table_2.XLSX

    No full text
    <p>The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa frequently forms toxic massive blooms and exists in an arms race with its infectious phages in aquatic natural environments, and as a result, has evolved extremely diverse and elaborate antiviral defense systems, including the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) system. Here, to assess Microcystis population dynamics associated with exogenous mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids, we examined the temporal variation in CRISPR genotypes (CTs) by analyzing spacer sequences detected in a natural pond between June and October 2013 when a cyanobacterial bloom occurred. A total of 463,954 high-quality leader-end CRISPR sequences were obtained and the sequences containing spacers were classified into 31 previously reported CTs and 68 new CTs based on the shared order of the leader-end spacers. CT19 was the most dominant genotype (32%) among the 16 most common CTs, followed by CT52 (14%) and CT58 (9%). Spacer repertoires of CT19 showed mainly two different types; CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which was identical to the CT19 spacer repertoire of previously isolated strains, and CT19<sub>new+</sub>, which contained a new spacer at the leader-end of the CRISPR region of CT19<sub>origin</sub>, which were present in almost equal abundance, accounting for up to 99.94% of CT19 sequences. Surprisingly, we observed the spacer repertoires of the second to tenth spacers of CT19<sub>origin</sub> at the most leader-end of proto-genotype sequences of CT19<sub>origin</sub>. These were observed during the sampling in this study and our previous study at the same ecosystem in 2010 and 2011, suggesting these CTs persisted from 2011 to 2013 in spite of phage pressure. The leader-end variants were observed in other CT genotypes. These findings indicated an incomplete selective sweep of Microcystis populations. We explained the phenomenon as follow; the abundance of Microcystis varied seasonally and drastically, resulting that Microcystis populations experience a bottleneck once a year, and thereby founder effects following a bottleneck mean that older CTs have an equal chance of increasing in prevalence as the CTs generated following acquisition of newer spacers.</p
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