1,947 research outputs found

    Properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere deduced from geoid observations

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    Data from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT Satellites provided a very accurate geoid map over the oceans. Broad bathymetric features in the oceans such as oceanic swells and plateaus are fully compensated. It is shown that the geoid anomalies due to the density structures of the lithosphere are proportional to the first moment of the density distribution. The deepening of the ocean basins is attributed to thermal isostasy. The thickness of the oceanic lithosphere increases with age due to the loss of heat to the sea floor. Bathymetry and the geoid provide constraints on the extent of this heat loss. Offsets in the geoid across major fracture zones can also be used to constrain this problem. Geoid bathymetry correlations show that the Hawaiian and Bermuda swells and the Cape Verde Rise are probably due to lithospheric thinning

    Universal law for waiting internal time in seismicity and its implication to earthquake network

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    In their paper (Europhys. Lett., 71 (2005) 1036), Carbone, Sorriso-Valvo, Harabaglia and Guerra showed that "unified scaling law" for conventional waiting times of earthquakes claimed by Bak et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 88 (2002) 178501) is actually not universal. Here, instead of the conventional time, the concept of the internal time termed the event time is considered for seismicity. It is shown that, in contrast to the conventional waiting time, the waiting event time obeys a power law. This implies the existence of temporal long-range correlations in terms of the event time with no sharp decay of the crossover type. The discovered power-law waiting event-time distribution turns out to be universal in the sense that it takes the same form for seismicities in California, Japan and Iran. In particular, the parameters contained in the distribution take the common values in all these geographical regions. An implication of this result to the procedure of constructing earthquake networks is discussed.Comment: 21 pages, 5 figure

    Geoid Anomalies and the Near-Surface Dipole Distribution of Mass

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    Although geoid or surface gravity anomalies cannot be uniquely related to an interior distribution of mass, they can be related to a surface mass distribution. However, over horizontal distances greater than about 100 km, the condition of isostatic equilibrium above the asthenosphere is a good approximation and the total mass per unit column is zero. Thus the surface distribution of mass is also zero. For this case we show that the surface gravitational potential anomaly can be uniquely related to a surface dipole distribution of mass. Variations in the thickness of the crust and lithosphere can be expected to produce undulations in the geoid

    Correlations and invariance of seismicity under renormalization-group transformations

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    The effect of transformations analogous to those of the real-space renormalization group are analyzed for the temporal occurrence of earthquakes. The distribution of recurrence times turns out to be invariant under such transformations, for which the role of the correlations between the magnitudes and the recurrence times are fundamental. A general form for the distribution is derived imposing only the self-similarity of the process, which also yields a scaling relation between the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the exponent characterizing the correlations, and the recurrence-time exponent. This approach puts the study of the structure of seismicity in the context of critical phenomena.Comment: Short paper. I'll be grateful to get some feedbac

    Self-organized criticality: Does it have anything to do with criticality and is it useful?

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    International audienceThree aspects of complexity are fractals, chaos, and self-organized criticality. There are many examples of the applicability of fractals in solid-earth geophysics, such as earthquakes and landforms. Chaos is widely accepted as being applicable to a variety of geophysical phenomena, for instance, tectonics and mantle convection. Several simple cellular-automata models have been said to exhibit self-organized criticality. Examples include the sandpile, forest fire and slider-blocks models. It is believed that these are directly applicable to landslides, actual forest fires, and earthquakes, respectively. The slider-block model has been shown to clearly exhibit deterministic chaos and fractal behaviour. The concept of self-similar cascades can explain self-organized critical behaviour. This approach also illustrates the similarities and differences with critical phenomena through association with the site-percolation and diffusion-limited aggregation models

    A heat-pipe mechanism for volcanism and tectonics on Venus

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    A heat-pipe mechanism is proposed for the transport of heat through the lithosphere of Venus. This mechanism allows the crust and lithosphere on Venus to be greater than 150 km. thick. A thick basaltic crust on Venus is expected to transform eclogite at a depth of 60 to 80 km; the dense eclogite would contribute to lithospheric delamination that returns the crust to the interior of the planet completing the heat-pipe cycle. Topography and the associated gravity anomalies can be explained by Airy compensation of the thick crust. The principal observation that is contrary to this hypothesis is the mean age of the surface that is inferred from crater statistics; the minimum mean age is about 130 Myr and this implies an upper limit of 2 cubic kilometers per year for the surface volcanic flux. If the heat-pipe mechanism was applicable on the Earth in the Archean it would provide the thick lithosphere implied by isotopic data from diamonds

    A renormalization group model for the stick-slip behavior of faults

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    A fault which is treated as an array of asperities with a prescribed statistical distribution of strengths is described. For a linear array the stress is transferred to a single adjacent asperity and for a two dimensional array to three ajacent asperities. It is shown that the solutions bifurcate at a critical applied stress. At stresses less than the critical stress virtually no asperities fail on a large scale and the fault is locked. At the critical stress the solution bifurcates and asperity failure cascades away from the nucleus of failure. It is found that the stick slip behavior of most faults can be attributed to the distribution of asperities on the fault. The observation of stick slip behavior on faults rather than stable sliding, why the observed level of seismicity on a locked fault is very small, and why the stress on a fault is less than that predicted by a standard value of the coefficient of friction are outlined
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