942 research outputs found

    Time-series transcriptomics from cold, oxic subseafloor crustal fluids reveals a motile, mixotrophic microbial community

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    © The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Seyler, L. M., Trembath-Reichert, E., Tully, B. J., & Huber, J. A. Time-series transcriptomics from cold, oxic subseafloor crustal fluids reveals a motile, mixotrophic microbial community. Isme Journal, (2020), doi:10.1038/s41396-020-00843-4.The oceanic crustal aquifer is one of the largest habitable volumes on Earth, and it harbors a reservoir of microbial life that influences global-scale biogeochemical cycles. Here, we use time series metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from a low-temperature, ridge flank environment representative of the majority of global hydrothermal fluid circulation in the ocean to reconstruct microbial metabolic potential, transcript abundance, and community dynamics. We also present metagenome-assembled genomes from recently collected fluids that are furthest removed from drilling disturbances. Our results suggest that the microbial community in the North Pond aquifer plays an important role in the oxidation of organic carbon within the crust. This community is motile and metabolically flexible, with the ability to use both autotrophic and organotrophic pathways, as well as function under low oxygen conditions by using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate and thiosulfate. Anaerobic processes are most abundant in subseafloor horizons deepest in the aquifer, furthest from connectivity with the deep ocean, and there was little overlap in the active microbial populations between sampling horizons. This work highlights the heterogeneity of microbial life in the subseafloor aquifer and provides new insights into biogeochemical cycling in ocean crust.The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation sponsored most of the observatory components at North Pond through grant GBMF1609. This work was supported by NSF OCE-1062006, OCE-1745589 and OCE-1635208 to J.A.H. E.T.R. was supported by a NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship with the NASA Astrobiology Institute and a L’OrĂ©al USA For Women in Science Fellowship. The Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI OCE-0939564) also supported the participation of J.A.H. and B.T. This is C-DEBI contribution number 548

    First Year Students\u27 Experience in a Cyber World Course - An Evaluation

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    Although cybersecurity is a major present concern, it is not a required subject in University. In response, we developed Cyber World which introduces students to eight highly important cybersecurity topics (primarily taught by none cybersecurity experts). We embedded it into our critical thinking Common Course (core curriculum) which is a team-taught first-year experience required for all students. Cyber World was first taught in Fall 2018 to a cohort of over 150 students from various majors at the University of New Haven. This article presents the evaluation of our Fall taught course. In detail, we compare the performance of Cyber World students to other Common Course sections that ran in parallel and conclude that despite the higher workload students performed equally well. Furthermore, we assess the students’ development throughout the course with respect to their cybersecurity knowledge where our results indicate a significant gain of knowledge. Note, this article also presents the idea and topics of Cyber World; however a detailed explanation has been released previously

    The Tully-Fisher Relation of Barred Galaxies

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    We present new data exploring the scaling relations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR), of bright barred and unbarred galaxies. A primary motivation for this study is to establish whether barredness correlates with, and is a consequence of, virial properties of galaxies. Various lines of evidence suggest that dark matter is dominant in disks of bright unbarred galaxies at 2.2 disk scale lengths, the point of peak rotation for a pure exponential disk. We test the hypothesis that the TF plane of barred high surface brightness galaxies is offset from the mean TFR of unbarred galaxies, as might be expected if barred galaxies are ``maximal'' in their inner parts. We use existing and new TF data to search for basic structural differences between barred and unbarred galaxies. Our new data consist of 2-dimensional Halpha velocity fields derived from SparsePak integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and V,I-band CCD images collected at the WIYN Observatory for 14 strongly barred galaxies. We use WIYN/SparsePak (2-D) velocity fields to show that long-slit (1-D) spectra yield reliable circular speed measurements at or beyond 2.2 disk scale lengths, far from any influence of the bar. This enables us to consider line width measurements from extensive TF surveys which include barred and nonbarred disks and derive detailed scaling relation comparisons. We find that for a given luminosity, barred and unbarred galaxies have comparable structural and dynamical parameters, such as peak velocities, scale lengths, or colors. In particular, the location of a galaxy in the TF plane is independent of barredness. In a global dynamical sense, barred and unbarred galaxies behave similarly and are likely to have, on average, comparable fractions of luminous and dark matter at a given radius. (abridged)Comment: Accepted for publication in the ApJ (September 1, 2003 issue, v594). Appendix figures with I-band image and superimposed 2-D velocity field plus rotation curves must be downloaded separately (due to size constraints) from http://www.astro.ubc.ca/people/courteau/public/courteau03_TFbars.ps.g

    Scaling Relations of Spiral Galaxies

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    We construct a large data set of global structural parameters for 1300 field and cluster spiral galaxies and explore the joint distribution of luminosity L, optical rotation velocity V, and disk size R at I- and 2MASS K-bands. The I- and K-band velocity-luminosity (VL) relations have log-slopes of 0.29 and 0.27, respectively with sigma_ln(VL)~0.13, and show a small dependence on color and morphological type in the sense that redder, early-type disk galaxies rotate faster than bluer, later-type disk galaxies for most luminosities. The VL relation at I- and K-bands is independent of surface brightness, size and light concentration. The log-slope of the I- and K-band RL relations is a strong function of morphology and varies from 0.25 to 0.5. The average dispersion sigma_ln(RL) decreases from 0.33 at I-band to 0.29 at K, likely due to the 2MASS selection bias against lower surface brightness galaxies. Measurement uncertainties are sigma_ln(V)~0.09, sigma_ln(L)~0.14 and somewhat larger and harder to estimate for ln(R). The color dependence of the VL relation is consistent with expectations from stellar population synthesis models. The VL and RL residuals are largely uncorrelated with each other; the RV-RL residuals show only a weak positive correlation. These correlations suggest that scatter in luminosity is not a significant source of the scatter in the VL and RL relations. The observed scaling relations can be understood in the context of a model of disk galaxies embedded in dark matter halos that invokes low mean spin parameters and dark halo expansion, as we describe in our companion paper (Dutton et al. 2007). We discuss in two appendices various pitfalls of standard analytical derivations of galaxy scaling relations, including the Tully-Fisher relation with different slopes. (Abridged).Comment: Accepted for publication at ApJ. The full document, with high-resolution B&W and colour figures, is available at http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~courteau/papers/VRL2007ApJ.pdf . Our data base for 1303 spiral galaxies is also available at http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~courteau/data/VRL2007.da

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey - Infrared (NGVS-IR): I. A new Near-UV/Optical/Near-IR Globular Cluster selection tool

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    The NGVS-IR project (Next Generation Virgo Survey - Infrared) is a contiguous near-infrared imaging survey of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. It complements the optical wide-field survey of Virgo (NGVS). The current state of NGVS-IR consists of Ks-band imaging of 4 deg^2 centered on M87, and J and Ks-band imaging of 16 deg^2 covering the region between M49 and M87. In this paper, we present the observations of the central 4 deg^2 centered on Virgo's core region. The data were acquired with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the total integration time was 41 hours distributed in 34 contiguous tiles. A survey-specific strategy was designed to account for extended galaxies while still measuring accurate sky brightness within the survey area. The average 5\sigma limiting magnitude is Ks=24.4 AB mag and the 50% completeness limit is Ks=23.75 AB mag for point source detections, when using only images with better than 0.7" seeing (median seeing 0.54"). Star clusters are marginally resolved in these image stacks, and Virgo galaxies with \mu_Ks=24.4 AB mag arcsec^-2 are detected. Combining the Ks data with optical and ultraviolet data, we build the uiK color-color diagram which allows a very clean color-based selection of globular clusters in Virgo. This diagnostic plot will provide reliable globular cluster candidates for spectroscopic follow-up campaigns needed to continue the exploration of Virgo's photometric and kinematic sub-structures, and will help the design of future searches for globular clusters in extragalactic systems. Equipped with this powerful new tool, future NGVS-IR investigations based on the uiK diagram will address the mapping and analysis of extended structures and compact stellar systems in and around Virgo galaxies.Comment: 23 pages, 18 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ

    The Formation and Evolution of Virgo Cluster Galaxies - I. Broadband Optical & Infrared Colours

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    We use a combination of deep optical (gri) and near-infrared (H) photometry to study the radially-resolved colours of a broad sample of 300 Virgo cluster galaxies. For most galaxy types, we find that the median g-H colour gradient is either flat (gas-poor giants and gas-rich dwarfs) or negative (i.e., colours become bluer with increasing radius; gas-poor dwarfs, spirals, and gas-poor peculiars). Later-type galaxies typically exhibit more negative gradients than early-types. Given the lack of a correlation between the central colours and axis ratios of Virgo spiral galaxies, we argue that dust likely plays a small role, if at all, in setting those colour gradients. We search for possible correlations between galaxy colour and photometric structure or environment and find that the Virgo galaxy colours become redder with increasing concentration, luminosity and surface brightness, while no dependence with cluster-centric radius or local galaxy density is detected (over a range of ~2 Mpc and ~3-16 Mpc^-2, respectively). However, the colours of gas-rich Virgo galaxies do correlate with neutral gas deficiency, such that these galaxies become redder with higher deficiencies. Comparisons with stellar population models suggest that these colour gradients arise principally from variations in stellar metallicity within these galaxies, while age variations only make a significant contribution to the colour gradients of Virgo irregulars. A detailed stellar population analysis based on this material is presented in Roediger et al (2011b; arXiv:1011.3511).Comment: 34 pages, 12 figures, 1 table, submitted to MNRAS; Paper II (arXiv:1011.3511) has also been update

    Fishing Participation, Motivators and Barriers among UK Anglers with Disabilities: Opportunities and Implications for Green Social Prescribing

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    Green social prescribing, which includes the referral of patients to nature-based activities, could exacerbate inequalities between people with disabilities and people without. Research suggests fishing could be more inclusive relative to other outdoor sports. To understand if fishing is an inclusive sport, and the potential benefits and barriers to prescribing fishing, the present study compared participation, motivators and barriers to fishing, between anglers with and without disabilities. UK adults were invited to participate in an online survey. Chi-square tests examined differences between anglers with and without disabilities regarding the type of fishing anglers engaged in, the frequency of fishing, the length of time spent fishing, motivators for fishing and barriers to fishing. Among 1799 anglers (97.5% male), 292 (16.2%) anglers reported having a disability. Most anglers with disabilities were over 55 years old (56.5%). There was no difference in fishing participation, or motivators for fishing, between anglers with and without disabilities; however, anglers with disabilities were more likely to report ‘costs’, ‘lack of transport’ and ‘having no one to go with them’ as barriers. Overall, there appeared to be no differences in fishing participation between anglers with versus without disabilities, although additional barriers to participation may exist

    Search for the doubly heavy baryon Ξbc+\it{\Xi}_{bc}^{+} decaying to J/ψΞc+J/\it{\psi} \it{\Xi}_{c}^{+}

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    A first search for the Ξbc+→J/ψΞc+\it{\Xi}_{bc}^{+}\to J/\it{\psi}\it{\Xi}_{c}^{+} decay is performed by the LHCb experiment with a data sample of proton-proton collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb−19\,\mathrm{fb}^{-1} recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV13\mathrm{\,Te\kern -0.1em V}. Two peaking structures are seen with a local (global) significance of 4.3 (2.8)4.3\,(2.8) and 4.1 (2.4)4.1\,(2.4) standard deviations at masses of 6571 MeV ⁣/c26571\,\mathrm{Me\kern -0.1em V\!/}c^2 and 6694 MeV ⁣/c26694\,\mathrm{Me\kern -0.1em V\!/}c^2, respectively. Upper limits are set on the Ξbc+\it{\Xi}_{bc}^{+} baryon production cross-section times the branching fraction relative to that of the Bc+→J/ψDs+B_{c}^{+}\to J/\it{\psi} D_{s}^{+} decay at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV13\mathrm{\,Te\kern -0.1em V}, in the Ξbc+\it{\Xi}_{bc}^{+} and in the Bc+B_{c}^{+} rapidity and transverse-momentum ranges from 2.0 to 4.5 and 0 to 20 GeV ⁣/c20\,\mathrm{Ge\kern -0.1em V\!/}c, respectively. Upper limits are presented as a function of the Ξbc+\it{\Xi}_{bc}^{+} mass and lifetime.Comment: All figures and tables, along with machine-readable versions and any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/p/LHCb-PAPER-2022-005.html (LHCb public pages
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