10,275 research outputs found

    The Cosmological Mean Density and its Local Variations Probed by Peculiar Velocities

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    Peculiar velocities thoughout the region of the local supercluster are reconstructed by two different orbit-retracing methods. The requirement of the optimal correlation between the radial components of reconstructed velocities and the observed peculiar velocities derived from our extensive new catalog of distances puts stringent constraints on the values of the cosmological parameters. Our constraints intersect those from studies of microwave background fluctuations and statistical properties of galaxy clustering: the ensemble of constraints are consistent with Omega_m=0.22\pm 0.02. While motions throughout the Local Supercluster provide a measure of the mean ratio of mass to light, there can be large local fluctuations. Our reconstruction of the infall velocities in the immediate vicinity of the Virgo Cluster shows that there is a mass-to-light anomaly of a factor of 3 to 6 between groups in the general field environment and the heavily populated Virgo Cluster.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, version to appear in Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Derivation of Distances with the Tully-Fisher Relation: The Antlia Cluster

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    The Tully-Fisher relation is a correlation between the luminosity and the HI 21cm line width in spiral galaxies (LLW relation). It is used to derive galaxy distances in the interval 7 to 100 Mpc. Closer, the Cepheids, TRGB and Surface Brightness Fluctuation methods give a better accuracy. Further, the SNIa are luminous objects still available for distance measurement purposes, though with a dramatically lower density grid of measurements on the sky. Galaxies in clusters are all at the same distance from the observer. Thus the distance of the cluster derived from a large number of galaxies (N) has an error reduced according to the square root of N. However, not all galaxies in a cluster are suitable for the LLW measurement. The selection criteria we use are explained hereafter; the important point being to avoid Malmquist bias and to not introduce any systematics in the distance measurement.Comment: Moriond0

    Cosmological fluctuation growth in bimetric MOND

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    I look at the growth of weak density inhomogeneities of nonrelativistic matter, in bimetric-MOND (BIMOND) cosmology. I concentrate on matter-twin-matter-symmetric versions of BIMOND, and assume that, on average, the universe is symmetrically populated in the two sectors. MOND effects are absent in an exactly symmetric universe, apart from the appearance of a cosmological constant, Lambda~(a0/c)^2. MOND effects-local and cosmological-do enter when density inhomogeneities that differ in the two sectors appear and develop. MOND later takes its standard form in systems that are islands dominated by pure matter. I derive the nonrelativistic equations governing small-scale fluctuation growth. The equations split into two uncoupled systems, one for the sum, the other for the difference, of the fluctuations in the two sectors. The former is governed strictly by Newtonian dynamics. The latter is governed by MOND dynamics, which entails stronger gravity, and nonlinearity even for the smallest of perturbations. These cause the difference to grow faster than the sum, conducing to matter-twin-matter segregation. The nonlinearity also causes interaction between nested perturbations on different scales. Because matter and twin matter (TM) repel each other in the MOND regime, matter inhomogeneities grow not only by their own self gravity, but also through shepherding by flanking TM overdensitie. The relative importance of gravity and pressure in the MOND system depends also on the strength of the perturbation. The development of structure in the universe, in either sector, thus depends crucially on two initial fluctuation spectra: that of matter alone and that of the matter-TM difference. I also discuss the back reaction on cosmology of BIMOND effects that appear as "phantom matter" resulting from inhomogeneity differences between the two sectors.Comment: 14 pages. Some clarifications added. Version published in Phys. Rev.

    A Face-On Tully-Fisher Relation

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    We construct the first "face-on" Tully-Fisher (TF) relation for 24 galaxies with inclinations between 16 degrees and 41 degrees. The enabling measurements are integral-field, echelle spectroscopy from the WIYN 3.5m telescope, which yield accurate kinematic estimates of disk inclination to 15 degrees. Kinematic inclinations are of sufficient accuracy that our measured TF scatter of 0.42 mag is comparable to other surveys even without internal-absorption corrections. Three of four galaxies with significant kinematic and photometric asymmetries also have the largest deviations from our TF relation, suggesting that asymmetries make an important contribution to TF scatter. By measuring inclinations below 40 degrees, we establish a direct path to linking this scatter to the unprojected structure of disks and making non-degenerate dynamical mass-decompositions of spiral galaxies.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures (2 color). Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Unified Brane Gravity: Cosmological Dark Matter from Scale Dependent Newton Constant

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    We analyze, within the framework of unified brane gravity, the weak-field perturbations caused by the presence of matter on a 3-brane. Although deviating from the Randall-Sundrum approach, the masslessness of the graviton is still preserved. In particular, the four-dimensional Newton force law is recovered, but serendipitously, the corresponding Newton constant is shown to be necessarily lower than the one which governs FRW cosmology. This has the potential to puzzle out cosmological dark matter. A subsequent conjecture concerning galactic dark matter follows.Comment: 6 pages, to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Constraints on the Massive Supernova Progenitors

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    Generally accepted scheme distinguishes two main classes of supernovae (SNe): Ia resulting from the old stellar population (deflagration of a white dwarf in close binary systems), and SNe of type II and Ib/c whose ancestors are young massive stars (died in a core-collapse explosion). Concerning the latter, there are suggestions that the SNe II are connected to early B stars, and SNe Ib/c to isolated O or Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. However, little or no effort was made to further separate SNe Ib from Ic. We have used assumed SN rates for different SN types in spiral galaxies in an attempt to perform this task. If isolated progenitor hypothesis is correct, our analysis indicates that SNe Ib result from stars of main-sequence mass 23M‚äô‚Č≤M‚Č≤30M‚äô23 \mathcal{M}_{\odot} \lesssim \mathcal{M} \lesssim 30 \mathcal{M}_{\odot}, while the progenitors of SNe Ic are more massive stars with M‚Č≥30M‚äô\mathcal{M} \gtrsim 30 \mathcal{M}_{\odot}. Alternatively, if the majority of SNe Ib/c appear in close binary systems (CBs) then they would result from the same progenitor population as most of the SNe II, i.e. early B stars with initial masses of order M‚ąľ10M‚äô\mathcal{M} \sim 10 \mathcal{M}_{\odot}. Future observations of SNe at high-redshift (zz) and their rate will provide us with unique information on SN progenitors and star-formation history of galaxies. At higher-zz (deeper in the cosmic past) we expect to see the lack of type Ia events, i.e. the dominance of core-collapse SNe. Better understanding of the stripped-envelope SNe (Ib/c), and their potential use as distance indicators at high-zz, would therefore be of great practical importance.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in IJMP

    The Velocity Field from Type Ia Supernovae Matches the Gravity Field from Galaxy Surveys

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    We compare the peculiar velocities of nearby SNe Ia with those predicted by the gravity fields of full sky galaxy catalogs. The method provides a powerful test of the gravitational instability paradigm and strong constraints on the density parameter beta = Omega^0.6/b. For 24 SNe Ia within 10,000 km/s we find the observed SNe Ia peculiar velocities are well modeled by the predictions derived from the 1.2 Jy IRAS survey and the Optical Redshift Survey (ORS). Our best ő≤\beta is 0.4 from IRAS, and 0.3 from the ORS, with beta>0.7 and beta<0.15 ruled out at 95% confidence levels from the IRAS comparison. Bootstrap resampling tests show these results to be robust in the mean and in its error. The precision of this technique will improve as additional nearby SNe Ia are discovered and monitored.Comment: 16 pages (LaTex), 3 postscript figure

    Possible Local Spiral Counterparts to Compact Blue Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

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    We identify nearby disk galaxies with optical structural parameters similar to those of intermediate-redshift compact blue galaxies. By comparing HI and optical emission-line widths, we show that the optical widths substantially underestimate the true kinematic widths of the local galaxies. By analogy, optical emission-line widths may underrepresent the masses of intermediate-z compact objects. For the nearby galaxies, the compact blue morphology is the result of tidally-triggered central star formation: we argue that interactions and minor mergers may cause apparently compact morphology at higher redshift.Comment: 5 pages, uses emulateapj5 and psfig. To appear in ApJ
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