88 research outputs found

    No. 2: The Prospects for Migration Data Harmonization in the SADC

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    Assessment in Paradise: Using Data to Drive Undergraduate Geoscience Initiatives and Programmatic Changes

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    At the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), the undergraduate geoscience programs are housed within the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST). In this poster trends in student and programmatic data from the undergraduate Global Environmental Science (GES) Program in SOEST were analyzed. It was determined that additional support was needed for the following: (1) students in their first year of the GES program; (2) a geoscience pathway from the local UHCCs to UHM; and (3) a process to increase recruitment, retention, and graduation rates of geoscience majors in general and Native Hawaiians in particular. Initial results from a multifaceted approach are presented in order to address these issues including curricular changes, geoscience pathways from UHCCs to UHM, summer geoscience research program, and an early warning student performance monitoring system

    Developing the Children's Measurement Framework : selecting the indicators

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    The Measurement Frameworks are being developed by the Equality and Human Rights Commission to monitor and evaluate progress towards achieving equality and human rights in Britain. This report documents the next step in their development, to select a set of indicators for children and young people within each of the 10 domains of the Equality Measurement Framework

    Mining and visualizing high-order directional drug interaction effects using the FAERS database

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    Background: Adverse drug events (ADEs) often occur as a result of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The use of data mining for detecting effects of drug combinations on ADE has attracted growing attention and interest, however, most studies focused on analyzing pairwise DDIs. Recent efforts have been made to explore the directional relationships among high-dimensional drug combinations and have shown effectiveness on prediction of ADE risk. However, the existing approaches become inefficient from both computational and illustrative perspectives when considering more than three drugs. Methods: We proposed an efficient approach to estimate the directional effects of high-order DDIs through frequent itemset mining, and further developed a novel visualization method to organize and present the high-order directional DDI effects involving more than three drugs in an interactive, concise and comprehensive manner. We demonstrated its performance by mining the directional DDIs associated with myopathy using a publicly available FAERS dataset. Results: Directional effects of DDIs involving up to seven drugs were reported. Our analysis confirmed previously reported myopathy associated DDIs including interactions between fusidic acid with simvastatin and atorvastatin. Furthermore, we uncovered a number of novel DDIs leading to increased risk for myopathy, such as the co-administration of zoledronate with different types of drugs including antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) and analgesics (acetaminophen, fentanyl, gabapentin, oxycodone). Finally, we visualized directional DDI findings via the proposed tool, which allows one to interactively select any drug combination as the baseline and zoom in/out to obtain both detailed and overall picture of interested drugs. Conclusions: We developed a more efficient data mining strategy to identify high-order directional DDIs, and designed a scalable tool to visualize high-order DDI findings. The proposed method and tool have the potential to contribute to the drug interaction research and ultimately impact patient health care

    The copper chaperone CCS facilitates copper binding to MEK1/2 to promote kinase activation

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    Normal physiology relies on the precise coordination of intracellular signaling pathways that respond to nutrient availability to balance cell growth and cell death. The canonical mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway consists of the RAFMEK- ERK signaling cascade and represents one of the most well-defined axes within eukaryotic cells to promote cell proliferation, which underscores its frequent mutational activation in human cancers. Our recent studies illuminated a function for the redox-active micronutrient copper (Cu) as an intracellular mediator of signaling by connecting Cu to the amplitude of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling via a direct interaction between Cu and the kinases MEK1 and MEK2. Given the large quantities of molecules such as glutathione and metallothionein that limit cellular toxicity from free Cu ions, evolutionarily conserved Cu chaperones facilitate efficient delivery of Cu to cuproenzymes. Thus, a dedicated cellular delivery mechanism of Cu to MEK1/2 likely exists. Using surface plasmon resonance and proximity-dependent biotin ligase studies, we report here that the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) selectively bound to and facilitated Cu transfer to MEK1. Mutants of CCS that disrupt Cu(I) acquisition and exchange or a CCS small-molecule inhibitor were used and resulted in reduced Cu-stimulated MEK1 kinase activity. Our findings indicate that the Cu chaperone CCS provides fidelity within a complex biological system to achieve appropriate installation of Cu within the MEK1 kinase active site that in turn modulates kinase activity and supports the development of novel MEK1/2 inhibitors that target the Cu structural interface or blunt dedicated Cu delivery mechanisms via CCS

    Acute Effects of Tai Chi Training on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Responses in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Pilot Study

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    This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position. Both groups were then reassessed. The participants’ attention and meditation levels were measured using electroencephalography; stress levels were measured using Perceived Stress Scale; heart rate and blood oxygenation were measured using an oximeter; and palmar skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer. Attention level tended to increase during TC and dropped immediately thereafter (p<0.001). Perceived stress level decreased from baseline to posttest in exclusively the TC group (p=0.005). Heart rate increased during TC (p<0.001) and decreased thereafter (p=0.001). No significant group, time, or group-by-time interaction effects were found in the meditation level, palmar skin temperature, and blood oxygenation outcomes. While a 10-minute TC training could temporarily improve attention and decrease perceived stress levels, it could not improve meditation, palmar skin temperature, or blood oxygenation among late middle-aged adults

    The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (CNFy) is Carried on Extracellular Membrane Vesicles to Host Cells

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    In this study we show Yersinia pseudotuberculosis secretes membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain different proteins and virulence factors depending on the strain. Although MVs from Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII and ATCC 29833 had many proteins in common (68.8% of all the proteins identified), those located in the outer membrane fraction differed significantly. For instance, the MVs from Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII harbored numerous Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) while they were absent in the ATCC 29833 MVs. Another virulence factor found solely in the YPIII MVs was the cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNFy), a toxin that leads to multinucleation of host cells. The ability of YPIII MVs to transport this toxin and its activity to host cells was verified using HeLa cells, which responded in a dose-dependent manner; nearly 70% of the culture was multinucleated after addition of 5 mu g/ml of the purified YPIII MVs. In contrast, less than 10% were multinucleated when the ATCC 29833 MVs were added. Semi-quantification of CNFy within the YPIII MVs found this toxin is present at concentrations of 5 -10 ng per mu g of total MV protein, a concentration that accounts for the cellular responses see
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