3,026 research outputs found

### Global Observables for Pb+Pb Collisions from the ATLAS Experiment

Global properties of heavy ion collisions at LHC, will provide insight into dynamics of the hot and dense medium formed at collision energies thirty times larger than energy available at RHIC. In addition to the jet studies, the ATLAS detector at LHC has a great potential to probe global observables like charged particle pseudo-rapidity densities, elliptic flow or total transverse energy production as a function of collision centrality and within almost a full solid angle. We report on the detector capabilities to measure the global observables in Pb+Pb collisions at the center of mass energy of 5.5 TeV/n. The focus of this talk will be on the importance of these measurements in the context of RHIC results

### Recent Heavy Ion Results with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

Results are presented from the ATLAS collaboration from the 2010 LHC heavy
ion run, during which nearly 10 inverse microbarns of luminosity were
delivered. Soft physics results include charged particle multiplicities and
collective flow. The charged particle multiplicity, which tracks initial state
entropy production, increases by a factor of two relative to the top RHIC
energy, with a centrality dependence very similar to that already measured at
RHIC. Measurements of elliptic flow out to large transverse momentum also show
similar results to what was measured at RHIC, but no significant pseudorapidity
dependence. Extensions of these measurements to higher harmonics have also been
made, and can be used to explain structures in the two-particle correlation
functions that had long been attributed to jet-medium interactions. New hard
probe measurements include single muons, jets and high $p_T$ hadrons. Single
muons at high momentum are used to extract the yield of $W^{\pm}$ bosons and
are found to be consistent within statistical uncertainties with binary
collision scaling. Conversely, jets are found to be suppressed in central
events by a factor of two relative to peripheral events, with no significant
dependence on the jet energy. Fragmentation functions are also found to be the
same in central and peripheral events. Finally, charged hadrons have been
measured out to 30 GeV, and their centrality dependence relative to peripheral
events is similar to that found for jets.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures, proceedings for Quark Matter 2011, Annecy,
France, May 23-28, 201

### The Importance of Correlations and Fluctuations on the Initial Source Eccentricity in High-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

In this paper, we investigate various ways of defining the initial source
eccentricity using the Monte Carlo Glauber (MCG) approach. In particular, we
examine the participant eccentricity, which quantifies the eccentricity of the
initial source shape by the major axes of the ellipse formed by the interaction
points of the participating nucleons. We show that reasonable variation of the
density parameters in the Glauber calculation, as well as variations in how
matter production is modeled, do not significantly modify the already
established behavior of the participant eccentricity as a function of collision
centrality. Focusing on event-by-event fluctuations and correlations of the
distributions of participating nucleons we demonstrate that, depending on the
achieved event-plane resolution, fluctuations in the elliptic flow magnitude
$v_2$ lead to most measurements being sensitive to the root-mean-square, rather
than the mean of the $v_2$ distribution. Neglecting correlations among
participants, we derive analytical expressions for the participant eccentricity
cumulants as a function of the number of participating nucleons,
\Npart,keeping non-negligible contributions up to \ordof{1/\Npart^3}. We
find that the derived expressions yield the same results as obtained from
mixed-event MCG calculations which remove the correlations stemming from the
nuclear collision process. Most importantly, we conclude from the comparison
with MCG calculations that the fourth order participant eccentricity cumulant
does not approach the spatial anisotropy obtained assuming a smooth nuclear
matter distribution. In particular, for the Cu+Cu system, these quantities
deviate from each other by almost a factor of two over a wide range in
centrality.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, submitted to PR

### Centrality dependence of charged antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity in d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

The ratios of the yields of charged antiparticles to particles have been
obtained for pions, kaons, and protons near mid-rapidity for d+Au collisions at
sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV as a function of centrality. The reported values represent
the ratio of the yields averaged over the rapidity range of 0.1<y_pi<1.3 and
0<y_(K,p)<0.8, where positive rapidity is in the deuteron direction, and for
transverse momenta 0.1<p_(T)^(pi,K)<1.0 GeV/c and 0.3<p_(T)^(p)<1.0 GeV/c.
Within the uncertainties, a lack of centrality dependence is observed in all
three ratios. The data are compared to results from other systems and model
calculations.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PR

### Collision geometry scaling of Au+Au pseudorapidity density from sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6 to 200 GeV

The centrality dependence of the midrapidity charged particle multiplicity in
Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6 and 200 GeV is presented. Within a simple
model, the fraction of hard (scaling with number of binary collisions) to soft
(scaling with number of participant pairs) interactions is consistent with a
value of x = 0.13 +/- 0.01(stat) +/- 0.05(syst) at both energies. The
experimental results at both energies, scaled by inelastic p(pbar)+p collision
data, agree within systematic errors. The ratio of the data was found not to
depend on centrality over the studied range and yields a simple linear scale
factor of R_(200/19.6) = 2.03 +/- 0.02(stat) +/- 0.05(syst).Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PRC-R

### Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow for charged hadrons in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 200 GeV

This paper describes the measurement of elliptic flow for charged particles
in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN)=200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The measured azimuthal anisotropy is
presented over a wide range of pseudorapidity for three broad collision
centrality classes for the first time at this energy. Two distinct methods of
extracting the flow signal were used in order to reduce systematic
uncertainties. The elliptic flow falls sharply with increasing eta at 200 GeV
for all the centralities studied, as observed for minimum-bias collisions at
sqrt(sNN)=130 GeV.Comment: Final published version: the most substantive change to the paper is
the inclusion of a complete description of how the errors from the hit-based
and track-based analyses are merged to produce the 90% C.L. errors quoted for
the combined results shown in Fig.

### Non-flow correlations and elliptic flow fluctuations in gold-gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN)= 200 GeV

This paper presents results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in
Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200Gev, where the contribution from non-flow
correlations has been subtracted. An analysis method is introduced to measure
non-flow correlations, relying on the assumption that non-flow correlations are
most prominent at short ranges (Delta eta < 2). Assuming that non-flow
correlations are of the order that is observed in p+p collisions for long range
correlations (Delta eta > 2), relative elliptic flow fluctuations of
approximately 30-40% are observed. These results are consistent with
predictions based on spatial fluctuations of the participating nucleons in the
initial nuclear overlap region. It is found that the long range non-flow
correlations in Au+Au collisions would have to be more than an order of
magnitude stronger compared to the p+p data to lead to the observed azimuthal
anisotropy fluctuations with no intrinsic elliptic flow fluctuations.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, Published in Phys. Rev.

### Event-by-event fluctuations of azimuthal particle anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

This paper presents the first measurement of event-by-event fluctuations of
the elliptic flow parameter v_2 in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200GeV as a
function of collision centrality. The relative non-statistical fluctuations of
the v_2 parameter are found to be approximately 40%. The results, including
contributions from event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations and from azimuthal
correlations that are unrelated to the reaction plane (non-flow correlations),
establish an upper limit on the magnitude of underlying elliptic flow
fluctuations. This limit is consistent with predictions based on spatial
fluctuations of the participating nucleons in the initial nuclear overlap
region. These results provide important constraints on models of the initial
state and hydrodynamic evolution of relativistic heavy ion collisions.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, Published in Phys. Rev. Lett

### Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Distributions in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=62.4 GeV

The charged-particle pseudorapidity density for Au+Au collisions at
sqrt(s_NN)=62.4 GeV has been measured over a wide range of impact parameters
and compared to results obtained at other energies. As a function of collision
energy, the pseudorapidity distribution grows systematically both in height and
width. The mid-rapidity density is found to grow approximately logarithmically
between AGS energies and the top RHIC energy. As a function of centrality,
there is an approximate factorization of the centrality dependence of the
mid-rapidity yields and the overall multiplicity scale. The new results at
sqrt(s_NN)=62.4 GeV confirm the previously observed phenomenon of ``extended
longitudinal scaling'' in the pseudorapidity distributions when viewed in the
rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei. It is also found that the evolution
of the shape of the distribution with centrality is energy independent, when
viewed in this reference frame. As a function of centrality, the total charged
particle multiplicity scales linearly with the number of participant pairs as
it was observed at other energies.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. C - Rapid Communication

### System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

This paper presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as
a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and
200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
(RHIC). The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even
for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found
that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is
estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new
form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which
yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative
magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system

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