109 research outputs found

    Energy-tunable sources of entangled photons: a viable concept for solid-state-based quantum relays

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    We propose a new method of generating triggered entangled photon pairs with wavelength on demand. The method uses a micro-structured semiconductor-piezoelectric device capable of dynamically reshaping the electronic properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) via anisotropic strain-engineering. Theoretical models based on kp theory in combination with finite-element calculations show that the energy of the polarization-entangled photons emitted by QDs can be tuned in a range larger than 100 meV without affecting the degree of entanglement of the quantum source. These results pave the way towards the deterministic implementation of QD entanglement resources in all-electrically-controlled solid-state-based quantum relays

    Highly entangled photons from hybrid piezoelectric-semiconductor quantum dot devices

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    Entanglement resources are key ingredients of future quantum technologies. If they could be efficiently integrated into a semiconductor platform a new generation of devices could be envisioned, whose quantum-mechanical functionalities are controlled via the mature semiconductor technology. Epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) embedded in diodes would embody such ideal quantum devices, but QD structural asymmetries lower dramatically the degree of entanglement of the sources and hamper severely their real exploitation in the foreseen applications. In this work, we overcome this hurdle using strain-tunable optoelectronic devices, where any QD can be tuned for the emission of highly polarization-entangled photons. The electrically-controlled sources violate Bell inequalities without the need of spectral or temporal filtering and they feature the highest degree of entanglement ever reported for QDs, with concurrence as high as 0.75(2). These quantum-devices are at present the most promising candidates for the direct implementation of QD-based entanglement-resources in quantum information science and technology

    Two-photon interference from two blinking quantum emitters

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    We investigate the effect of blinking on the two-photon interference measurement from two independent quantum emitters. We find that blinking significantly alters the statistics in the second-order intensity correlation function g(2)(ŌĄ)^{(2)}(\tau) and the outcome of two-photon interference measurements performed with independent quantum emitters. We theoretically demonstrate that the presence of blinking can be experimentally recognized by a deviation from the gD(2)(0)=0.5^{(2)}_{D}(0)=0.5 value when distinguishable photons impinge on a beam splitter. Our results show that blinking imposes a mandatory cross-check measurement to correctly estimate the degree of indistinguishablility of photons emitted by independent quantum emitters

    Inversion of the exciton built-in dipole moment in In(Ga)As quantum dots via nonlinear piezoelectric effect

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    We show that anisotropic biaxial stress can be used to tune the built-in dipole moment of excitons confined in In(Ga)As quantum dots up to complete erasure of its magnitude and inversion of its sign. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to piezoelectricity. We present a model to calculate the applied stress, taking advantage of the so-called piezotronic effect, which produces significant changes in the current-voltage characteristics of the strained diode-membranes containing the quantum dots. Finally, self-consistent k.p calculations reveal that the experimental findings can be only accounted for by the nonlinear piezoelectric effect, whose importance in quantum dot physics has been theoretically recognized although it has proven difficult to single out experimentally.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    High-yield fabrication of entangled photon emitters for hybrid quantum networking using high-temperature droplet epitaxy

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    Several semiconductor quantum dot techniques have been investigated for the generation of entangled photon pairs. Among the other techniques, droplet epitaxy enables the control of the shape, size, density, and emission wavelength of the quantum emitters. However, the fraction of the entanglement-ready quantum dots that can be fabricated with this method is still limited to around 5%, and matching the energy of the entangled photons to atomic transitions (a promising route towards quantum networking) remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we overcome these obstacles by introducing a modified approach to droplet epitaxy on a high symmetry (111)A substrate, where the fundamental crystallization step is performed at a significantly higher temperature as compared to previous reports. Our method drastically improves the yield of entanglement-ready photon sources near the emission wavelength of interest, which can be as high as 95% due to the low values of fine structure splitting and radiative lifetime, together with the reduced exciton dephasing offered by the choice of GaAs/AlGaAs materials. The quantum dots are designed to emit in the operating spectral region of Rb-based slow-light media, providing a viable technology for quantum repeater stations.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figure

    Highly indistinguishable single photons from incoherently and coherently excited GaAs quantum dots

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    Semiconductor quantum dots are converging towards the demanding requirements of photonic quantum technologies. Among different systems, quantum dots with dimensions exceeding the free-exciton Bohr radius are appealing because of their high oscillator strengths. While this property has received much attention in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics, little is known about the degree of indistinguishability of single photons consecutively emitted by such dots and on the proper excitation schemes to achieve high indistinguishability. A prominent example is represented by GaAs quantum dots obtained by local droplet etching, which recently outperformed other systems as triggered sources of entangled photon pairs. On these dots, we compare different single-photon excitation mechanisms, and we find (i) a "phonon bottleneck" and poor indistinguishability for conventional excitation via excited states and (ii) photon indistinguishablilities above 90% for both strictly resonant and for incoherent acoustic- and optical-phonon-assisted excitation. Among the excitation schemes, optical phonon-assisted excitation enables straightforward laser rejection without a compromise on the source brightness together with a high photon indistinguishability

    Strain-Tunable GaAs Quantum dot: A Nearly Dephasing-Free Source of Entangled Photon Pairs on Demand

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    Entangled photon generation from semiconductor quantum dots via the biexciton-exciton cascade underlies various decoherence mechanisms related to the solid-state nature of the quantum emitters. So far, this has prevented the demonstration of nearly-maximally entangled photons without the aid of inefficient and complex post-selection techniques that are hardly suitable for quantum communication technologies. Here, we tackle this challenge using strain-tunable GaAs quantum dots driven under two-photon resonant excitation and with strictly-degenerate exciton states. We demonstrate experimentally that our on-demand source generates polarization-entangled photons with fidelity of 0.978(5) and concurrence of 0.97(1) without resorting to post-selection techniques. Moreover, we show that the remaining decoherence mechanisms can be overcome using a modest Purcell enhancement so as to achieve a degree of entanglement >0.99. Our results highlight that GaAs quantum dots can be readily used in advanced communication protocols relying on the non-local properties of quantum entanglement

    Effect of second order piezoelectricity on excitonic structure of stress-tuned InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots

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    We study the effects of the nonlinear piezoelectricity and the In distribution on the exciton energy, the electron-hole electric dipole moment, and the fine-structure splitting in stress-tunable InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots integrated onto a piezoelectric actuator. In particular, we investigate in detail the contributions of various elements of the expansion of the electrical polarization in terms of externally induced elastic strain on the latter two important quantum dot properties. Based on the comparison of the effects of first- and second-order piezoelectricity we provide a simple relation to estimate the influence of applied anisotropic stress on the quantum dot dipole moment for quantum dots significantly lattice mismatched to the host crystal
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