10,780 research outputs found

    Questioning the Claim of Germany’s "Employment Miracle"

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    Large amplitude oscillations in prominences

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    Since the first reports of oscillations in prominences in the 1930s, there have been major theoretical and observational developments to understand the nature of these oscillatory phenomena, leading to the whole new field of the so-called “prominence seismology”. There are two types of oscillatory phenomena observed in prominences; “small amplitude oscillations” (2–3 km s−1), which are quite common, and “large-amplitude oscillations” (>20 km s−1) for which observations are scarce. Large-amplitude oscillations have been found as “winking filament” in Hα as well as motion in the plane-of-sky in Hα, EUV, micro-wave and He 10830 observations. Historically, it has been suggested that the large-amplitude oscillations in prominences were triggered by disturbances such as fastmode MHD waves (Moreton wave) produced by remote flares. Recent observations show, in addition, that near-by flares or jets can also create such large-amplitude oscillations in prominences. Large-amplitude oscillations, which are observed both in transverse as well as longitudinal direction, have a range of periods varying from tens of minutes to a few hours. Using the observed period of oscillation and simple theoretical models, the obtained magnetic field in prominences has shown quite a good agreement with directly measured one and, therefore, justifies prominence seismology as a powerful diagnostic tool. On rare occasions, when the large-amplitude oscillations have been observed before or during the eruption, the oscillations may be applied to diagnose the stability and the eruption mechanism. Here we review the recent developments and understanding in the observational properties of large-amplitude oscillations and their trigger mechanisms and stability in the context of prominence seismology

    The sustainability of Suranga irrigation in South Karnataka and northern Kerala, India

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    This paper reports the preliminary findings from an on-going research project that is exploring the resilience and sustainability of suranga irrigation technology found in the Western Ghats of south Karnataka and northern Kerala, India. The suranga are traditional adit water harvesting systems that tap ground waters. They have been constructed mainly by individual land owners to provide both drinking and irrigation water. This paper compares traditional suranga irrigation technology with that of more modern irrigation technology, first introduced during the green revolution, in terms of their impacts on livelihood strategies and water use efficiency. The paper also describes some of the recent adaptations made by farmers to suranga systems based on response to new crop growing opportunities and the availability of new conveyance and distribution technologies and materials. The paper concludes by exploring the resilience and sustainability of the traditional system from a catchment based perspective as the region faces the duel pressures of population increase and climate change.Submitted Versio

    Magnetic impurities in the honeycomb Kitaev model

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    We study the effect of coupling magnetic impurities to the honeycomb lattice spin-1/2 Kitaev model in its spin liquid phase. We show that a spin-S impurity coupled to the Kitaev model is associated with an unusual Kondo effect with an intermediate coupling unstable fixed point K_c J/S separating topologically distinct sectors of the Kitaev model. We also show that the massless spinons in the spin liquid mediate an interaction of the form S_{i\alpha}^{2}S_{j\beta}^{2}/R_{ij}^{3} between distant impurities unlike the usual dipolar RKKY interaction S_{i\alpha}S_{j\alpha}/R_{ij}^{3} noted in various 2D impurity problems with a pseudogapped density of states of the spin bath. Furthermore, this long-range interaction is possible only if the impurities (a) couple to more than one neighboring spin on the host lattice and (b) the impurity spin is not a spin-1/2.$Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, Published versio

    Large amplitude oscillation of an erupting filament as seen in EUV, H-alpha and microwave observations

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    We present multiwavelength observations of a large-amplitude oscillation of a polar-crown filament on 15 October 2002, which has been reported by Isobe and Tripathi (Astron. Astrophys. 449, L17, 2006). The oscillation occurred during the slow rise (≈1 km s−1) of the filament. It completed three cycles before sudden acceleration and eruption. The oscillation and following eruption were clearly seen in observations recorded by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The oscillation was seen only in a part of the filament, and it appears to be a standing oscillation rather than a propagating wave. The amplitudes of velocity and spatial displacement of the oscillation in the plane of the sky were about 5 km s−1 and 15 000 km, respectively. The period of oscillation was about two hours and did not change significantly during the oscillation. The oscillation was also observed in Hα by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at the Hida Observatory. We determine the three-dimensional motion of the oscillation from the Hα wing images. The maximum line-of-sight velocity was estimated to be a few tens of kilometers per second, although the uncertainty is large owing to the lack of line-profile information. Furthermore, we also identified the spatial displacement of the oscillation in 17-GHz microwave images from Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH). The filament oscillation seems to be triggered by magnetic reconnection between a filament barb and nearby emerging magnetic flux as was evident from the MDI magnetogram observations. No flare was observed to be associated with the onset of the oscillation. We also discuss possible implications of the oscillation as a diagnostic tool for the eruption mechanisms. We suggest that in the early phase of eruption a part of the filament lost its equilibrium first, while the remaining part was still in an equilibrium and oscillated

    Plant regeneration from axillary bud derived callus in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata)

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    Published online: 14 June 2016Dioscorea rotundata, commonly known as white yam, is an important staple food crop widely cultivated in West Africa and provides food security to millions of people. Genetic improvements of this crop using the advanced biotechnology tools have been hampered hitherto by the recalcitrant nature of regeneration through somatic embryogenesis. Therefore, we have developed an efficient and reproducible system for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Explants of different types (immature leaf, node, stem internode, root segment, petiole, and axillary bud) of D. rotundata accession TDr 2436 were tested for their embryogenic potentials on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various auxins (2,4-D, NAA, and picloram). Among all explants tested, axillary bud explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with picloram (0.5–12 mg/l) favored the production of calli. Maximum proliferation of calli (526 mg fresh weight/explant) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with picloram (0.5 mg/l), casein hydrolysate (600 mg/l), and proline (1 g/l). Histology analysis confirmed that the embryogenic calli produced on this medium were mixed with non-embryogenic calli. Transfer of calli on MS basal medium supplemented with activated charcoal (1 %) changed the color of calli to purple and promoted the production of somatic embryos (87 embryos/callus) as well as adventitious shoot buds. Furthermore, upon transfer to MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.4 mg/l), the embryos continued their differentiation and maturation and germinated into complete plantlets. The adventitious shoot buds produced multiple shoots on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.4 mg/l). Well-developed germinated plantlets were acclimatized in the screen house with 90 % survivability. Histology studies confirmed that the regeneration of D. rotundata reported here followed dual regeneration pathways. The embryogenic calli regenerated through development of somatic embryos and germinated into complete plantlets, however non-embryogenic calli regenerated through organogenesis and developed multiple shoots. The developed protocol has potential for somatic hybridization, mass clonal propagation, and genetic transformation applications