266 research outputs found

    Multiple Sources toward the High-mass Young Star S140 IRS1

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    S140 IRS1 is a remarkable source where the radio source at the center of the main bipolar molecular outflow in the region is elongated perpendicular to the axis of the outflow, an orientation opposite to that expected if the radio source is a thermal jet exciting the outflow. We present results of 1.3 cm continuum and H2O maser emission observations made with the VLA in its A configuration toward this region. In addition, we also present results of continuum observations at 7 mm and re-analyse observations at 2, 3.5 and 6 cm (previously published). IRS 1A is detected at all wavelengths, showing an elongated structure. Three water maser spots are detected along the major axis of the radio source IRS 1A. We have also detected a new continuum source at 3.5 cm (IRS 1C) located ~0.6'' northeast of IRS 1A. The presence of these two YSOs (IRS 1A and 1C) could explain the existence of the two bipolar molecular outflows observed in the region. In addition, we have also detected three continuum clumps (IRS 1B, 1D and 1E) located along the major axis of IRS 1A. We discuss two possible models to explain the nature of IRS 1A: a thermal jet and an equatorial wind.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures, to be published in A

    Searching for compact radio sources associated to UCHII regions

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    Ultra-Compact (UC)HII regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation whose structure and evolution are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations in recent years show that some UCHII regions have associated compact sources of uncertain nature. Based on this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCHII regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCHII regions. From the observations, we find 13 compact sources associated to 9 UCHII regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that probably are deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCHII region. These sources are being photo-evaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 104105^4-10^5 yr. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCHII region as the photo-evaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem for these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photo-evaporating objects such as those of the first type but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The rest of sources of this second type appear unresolved and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.Comment: 33 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables. Accepted for publication in Ap

    The ultracompact regions G40.54+2.59 and G34.13+0.47: A new detection of compact radio sources

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    We report the detection of three compact (<0.001< 0.001 pc) radio sources (CRSs) at Ka_{a}-band (0.9 cm) in the \uchiirs G040.54+2.59 (two CRSs) and G034.13+0.47 (one CRS). These CRSs have weak flux densities and are located at the center of their respective \uchii regions. We found no clear association between massive ionizing stars and CRSs but some radiative influence on the latter, as suggested by their large emission measures (> 107cm6pc10^7 \mathrm{cm}^{-6}\mathrm{pc}), typical of photo evaporating neutral objects close to or associated with massive stars. Our modelling of G40.54+2.59 shows that their CRSs supply enough ionized material to shape its morphology while significantly extending its observable lifetime. On the other hand, despite the possible relation of the CRS with the large-scale outflow signatures observed in G034.13+0.47, the influence of this CRS on the evolution of the \uchii region is unlikely. Our results show that the presence of CRSs can alleviate the so-called lifetime problem of UCHII regions. Still, to address their dynamical evolution adequately, the scenario must include additional mechanisms like ambient confinement, or the role of the kinematics of their associated stellar objects.Comment: Published in Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Volume 75, Issue 1, February 2023, Pages 90-102, https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psac09

    Cambios en el panorama televisivo español: ¿Hacia qué modelo nos encaminamos?

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    El presente artículo repasa la evolución legislativa española en el terreno audiovisual hasta la reciente aprobación de la Ley General de la Comunicación Audiovisual. El texto analiza la influencia del nuevo marco en el mercado televisivo en tres aspectos fundamentales: el pluralismo, la concentración y la contribución a la producción audiovisual, con vistas a su incidencia en el modelo audiovisual español y, más específicamente, el desarrollo de la televisión de pago. Del examen de este proceso los autores extraen un notable retroceso en estas materias.This paper reviews the legal Spanish evolution in the audiovisual context till the approval of the new Communication Act. The text analyses the effect of this new framework in the television market from three main perspectives: pluralism, concentration and audiovisual production, in regard to their influence in the audiovisual Spanish model and the development of pay TV. The authors observe some important backward movements from the study of this process.Publicad

    Collision of molecular outflows in the L1448--C system

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    We present a study of the central zone of the star-forming region L1448 at 217--230 GHz (\sim 1.3 mm) using ALMA observations. Our study focuses on the detection of proto-stellar molecular outflows and the interaction with the surrounding medium toward sources L1448--C(N) and L1448--C(S). Both sources exhibit continuum emission, with L1448--C(N) being the brightest one. Based on its spectral index and the associated bipolar outflow, the continuum emission is the most likely to be associated with a circumstellar disk. The 12^{\rm 12}CO(J=2\rightarrow1) and SiO(J= 5\rightarrow4) emissions associated with L1448--C(N) trace a bipolar outflow and a jet oriented along the northwest-southeast direction. The 12^{\rm 12}CO(J=2\rightarrow1) outflow for L1448--C(N) has a wide-open angle and a V-shape morphology. The SiO jet is highly collimated and has an axial extent comparable with the 12^{\rm 12}CO(J=2\rightarrow1) emission. There is not SiO(J= 5\rightarrow4) emission towards L1448--C(S), but there is 12^{\rm 12}CO(J=2\rightarrow1) emission. The observations revealed that the red-shifted lobes of the 12^{\rm 12}CO(J=2\rightarrow1) outflows of L1448--C(N) and L1448--C(S) are colliding. As a result of this interaction, the L1448-C(S) lobe seems to be truncated. The collision of the molecular outflows is also hinted by the SiO(J= 5\rightarrow4) emission, where the velocity dispersion increases significantly in the interaction zone. We also investigated whether it could be possible that this collision triggers the formation of new stars in the L1448--C system.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stad98

    Evolution induced by dry minor mergers onto fast-rotator S0 galaxies

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    We analysed collisionless N-body simulations of intermediate and minor dry mergers onto S0s to test whether these mergers can generate S0 galaxies with kinematics intermediate between fast and slow rotators. We find that minor mergers induce a lower decrease of the global rotational support than encounters of lower mass ratios, which results in S0s with properties intermediate between fast and slow rotators. The resulting remnants are intrinsically more triaxial, less flattened, and span the whole range of apparent ellipticities up to ϵe0.8\epsilon_\mathrm{e} \sim 0.8. They do not show lower apparent ellipticities in random projections than initially; on the contrary, the formation of oval distortions and the disc thickening increase the percentage of projections at 0.4<ϵe<0.70.4 < \epsilon_\mathrm{e} < 0.7. In the experiments with S0b progenitor galaxies, minor mergers tend to spin up the bulge and to decrease slightly its intrinsic ellipticity, whereas in the cases of primary S0c galaxies they keep the rotational support of the bulge nearly constant and decrease significantly its intrinsic ellipticity. The remnant bulges remain nearly spherical (B/AC/A>0.9B/A \sim C/A > 0.9), but exhibit a wide range of triaxialities (0.20<T<1.000.20 < T < 1.00). In the plane of global anisotropy of velocities (δ\delta) vs. intrinsic ellipticity (ϵe,intr\epsilon_\mathrm{e,intr}), some of our models extend the linear trend found in previous major merger simulations towards higher ϵe,intr\epsilon_\mathrm{e,intr} values, while others depart from it. This is consistent with the wide dispersion exhibited by real S0s in this diagram compared with ellipticals, which follow the linear trend drawn by major merger simulations. The different trends exhibited by ellipticals and S0 galaxies in the δ\delta - ϵe\epsilon_\mathrm{e} diagram may be pointing to the different role played by major mergers in the build-up of each morphological type.Comment: Corrected typos. 20 pages, 14 figures. Accepted for publishing in A&

    EphrinA4 plays a critical role in α4 and αL mediated survival ofhuman CLL cells during extravasation

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    A role of endothelial cells in the survival of CLL cells during extravasation is presently unknown. Herein we show that CLL cells but not normal B cells can receive apoptotic signals through physical contact with TNF-α activated endothelium impairing survival in transendothelial migration (TEM) assays. In addition, the CLL cells of patients having lymphadenopathy (LApos) show a survival advantage during TEM that can be linked to increased expression of α4 and αL integrin chains. Within this context, ephrinA4 expressed on the surface of CLL cells sequestrates integrins and inactivates them resulting in reduced adhesion and inhibition of apoptotic/survival signals through them. In agreement, ephrinA4 silencing resulted in increased survival of CLL cells of LApos patients but not LA neg patients. Similarly was observed when a soluble ephrinA4 isoform was added to TEM assays strongly suggesting that accumulation of this isoform in the serum of LApos patients could contribute to CLL cells dissemination and survival in vivo. In supporting, CLL lymphadenopathies showed a preferential accumulation of apoptotic CLL cells around high endothelial venules lacking ephrinA4. Moreover, soluble ephrinA4 isolated from sera of patients increased the number and viability of CLL cells recovered from the lymph nodes of adoptively transferred mice. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that soluble ephrinA4 mediated survival during TEM could enhance a transcellular TEM route of the CLL cells. Together these findings point to an important role of ephrinA4 in the nodal dissemination of CLL cells governing extravasation and survival

    A Rapid and Accurate Extraction Procedure for Analysing Free Amino Acids in Meat Samples by GC-MS

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    This study evaluated the use of a mixer mill as the homogenization tool for the extraction of free amino acids in meat samples, with the main goal of analyzing a large number of samples in the shortest time and minimizing sample amount and solvent volume. Ground samples (0.2 g) were mixed with 1.5 mL HCl 0.1 M and homogenized in the mixer mill. The final biphasic system was separated by centrifugation. The supernatant was deproteinized, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography. This procedure showed a high extracting ability, especially in samples with high free amino acid content (recovery = 88.73–104.94%). It also showed a low limit of detection and quantification (3.8 · 10−4–6.6 · 10−4 μg μL−1 and 1.3 · 10−3–2.2 · 10−2 μg μL−1, resp.) for most amino acids, an adequate precision (2.15–20.15% for run-to-run), and a linear response for all amino acids (R2 = 0.741–0.998) in the range of 1–100 µg mL−1. Moreover, it takes less time and requires lower amount of sample and solvent than conventional techniques. Thus, this is a cost and time efficient tool for homogenizing in the extraction procedure of free amino acids from meat samples, being an adequate option for routine analysis
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