3,076 research outputs found

    Ultracold Dipolar Gases in Optical Lattices

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    This tutorial is a theoretical work, in which we study the physics of ultra-cold dipolar bosonic gases in optical lattices. Such gases consist of bosonic atoms or molecules that interact via dipolar forces, and that are cooled below the quantum degeneracy temperature, typically in the nK range. When such a degenerate quantum gas is loaded into an optical lattice produced by standing waves of laser light, new kinds of physical phenomena occur. These systems realize then extended Hubbard-type models, and can be brought to a strongly correlated regime. The physical properties of such gases, dominated by the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, are discussed using the mean-field approximations, and exact Quantum Monte Carlo techniques (the Worm algorithm).Comment: 56 pages, 26 figure

    Construction and Test of MDT Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

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    The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for the muon spectrometer of the AT- LAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) consist of 3-4 layers of pressurized drift tubes on either side of a space frame carrying an optical monitoring system to correct for deformations. The full-scale prototype of a large MDT chamber has been constructed with methods suitable for large-scale production. X-ray measurements at CERN showed a positioning accuracy of the sense wires in the chamber of better than the required 20 ?microns (rms). The performance of the chamber was studied in a muon beam at CERN. Chamber production for ATLAS now has started

    Local stellar kinematics from RAVE data: III. Radial and Vertical Metallicity Gradients based on Red Clump Stars

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    We investigate radial and vertical metallicity gradients for a sample of red clump stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 3. We select a total of 6781 stars, using a selection of colour, surface gravity and uncertainty in the derived space motion, and calculate for each star a probabilistic (kinematic) population assignment to a thin or thick disc using space motion and additionally another (dynamical) assignment using stellar vertical orbital eccentricity. We derive almost equal metallicity gradients as a function of Galactocentric distance for the high probability thin disc stars and for stars with vertical orbital eccentricities consistent with being dynamically young, e_v<=0.07, i.e. d[M/H]/dR_m = -0.041(0.003) and d[M/H]/dR_m = -0.041(0.007) dex/kpc. Metallicity gradients as a function of distance from the Galactic plane for the same populations are steeper, i.e. d[M/H]/dz_{max} = -0.109(0.008) and d[M/H]/dz_{max} = -0.260(0.031) dex/kpc, respectively. R_m and z_{max} are the arithmetic mean of the perigalactic and apogalactic distances, and the maximum distance to the Galactic plane, respectively. Samples including more thick disc red clump giant stars show systematically shallower abundance gradients. These findings can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of the thick and thin discs.Comment: 27 pages, including 15 figures and 4 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Quantum computing implementations with neutral particles

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    We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our discussion mainly on collisional quantum gates, which are best suited for atom-chip-like devices, as well as on gate proposals conceived for optical lattices. Additionally, we analyze schemes both for cold atoms confined in optical cavities and hybrid approaches to entanglement generation, and we show how optimal control theory might be a powerful tool to enhance the speed up of the gate operations as well as to achieve high fidelities required for fault tolerant quantum computation.Comment: 19 pages, 12 figures; From the issue entitled "Special Issue on Neutral Particles

    Condensed Matter Theory of Dipolar Quantum Gases

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    Recent experimental breakthroughs in trapping, cooling and controlling ultracold gases of polar molecules, magnetic and Rydberg atoms have paved the way toward the investigation of highly tunable quantum systems, where anisotropic, long-range dipolar interactions play a prominent role at the many-body level. In this article we review recent theoretical studies concerning the physics of such systems. Starting from a general discussion on interaction design techniques and microscopic Hamiltonians, we provide a summary of recent work focused on many-body properties of dipolar systems, including: weakly interacting Bose gases, weakly interacting Fermi gases, multilayer systems, strongly interacting dipolar gases and dipolar gases in 1D and quasi-1D geometries. Within each of these topics, purely dipolar effects and connections with experimental realizations are emphasized.Comment: Review article; submitted 09/06/2011. 158 pages, 52 figures. This document is the unedited author's version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in Chemical Reviews, copyright American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work, a link will be provided soo

    Starcounts Redivivus. IV. Density Laws Through Photometric Parallaxes

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    In an effort to more precisely define the spatial distribution of Galactic field stars, we present an analysis of the photometric parallaxes of 70,000 stars covering nearly 15 square degrees in seven Kapteyn Selected Areas. We address the affects of Malmquist Bias, subgiant/giant contamination, metallicity and binary stars upon the derived density laws. The affect of binary stars is the most significant. We find that while the disk-like populations of the Milky Way are easily constrained in a simultaneous analysis of all seven fields, no good simultaneous solution for the halo is found. We have applied halo density laws taken from other studies and find that the Besancon flattened power law halo model (c/a=0.6, r^-2.75) produces the best fit to our data. With this halo, the thick disk has a scale height of 750 pc with an 8.5% normalization to the old disk. The old disk scale height is 280-300 pc. Corrected for a binary fraction of 50%, these scale heights are 940 pc and 350-375 pc, respectively. Even with this model, there are systematic discrepancies between the observed and predicted density distributions. Our model produces density overpredictions in the inner Galaxy and density underpredictions in the outer Galaxy. A possible solution is modeling the stellar halo as a two-component system in which the halo has a flattened inner distribution and a roughly spherical, but substructured outer distribution. Further reconciliation could be provided by a flared thick disk, a structure consistent with a merger origin for that population. (Abridged)Comment: 66 pages, accepted to Astrophysical journal, some figures compresse

    Topological Color Codes and Two-Body Quantum Lattice Hamiltonians

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    Topological color codes are among the stabilizer codes with remarkable properties from quantum information perspective. In this paper we construct a four-valent lattice, the so called ruby lattice, governed by a 2-body Hamiltonian. In a particular regime of coupling constants, degenerate perturbation theory implies that the low energy spectrum of the model can be described by a many-body effective Hamiltonian, which encodes the color code as its ground state subspace. The gauge symmetry Z2×Z2\mathbf{Z}_{2}\times\mathbf{Z}_{2} of color code could already be realized by identifying three distinct plaquette operators on the lattice. Plaquettes are extended to closed strings or string-net structures. Non-contractible closed strings winding the space commute with Hamiltonian but not always with each other giving rise to exact topological degeneracy of the model. Connection to 2-colexes can be established at the non-perturbative level. The particular structure of the 2-body Hamiltonian provides a fruitful interpretation in terms of mapping to bosons coupled to effective spins. We show that high energy excitations of the model have fermionic statistics. They form three families of high energy excitations each of one color. Furthermore, we show that they belong to a particular family of topological charges. Also, we use Jordan-Wigner transformation in order to test the integrability of the model via introducing of Majorana fermions. The four-valent structure of the lattice prevents to reduce the fermionized Hamiltonian into a quadratic form due to interacting gauge fields. We also propose another construction for 2-body Hamiltonian based on the connection between color codes and cluster states. We discuss this latter approach along the construction based on the ruby lattice.Comment: 56 pages, 16 figures, published version

    Search for Yukawa Production of a Light Neutral Higgs Boson at LEP

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    Within a Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) a search for a light Higgs boson in the mass range of 4-12 GeV has been performed in the Yukawa process e+e- -> b bbar A/h -> b bbar tau+tau-, using the data collected by the OPAL detector at LEP between 1992 and 1995 in e+e- collisions at about 91 GeV centre-of-mass energy. A likelihood selection is applied to separate background and signal. The number of observed events is in good agreement with the expected background. Within a CP-conserving 2HDM type II model the cross-section for Yukawa production depends on xiAd = |tan beta| and xihd = |sin alpha/cos beta| for the production of the CP-odd A and the CP-even h, respectively, where tan beta is the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs doublets and alpha is the mixing angle between the neutral CP-even Higgs bosons. From our data 95% C.L. upper limits are derived for xiAd within the range of 8.5 to 13.6 and for xihd between 8.2 to 13.7, depending on the mass of the Higgs boson, assuming a branching fraction into tau+tau- of 100%. An interpretation of the limits within a 2HDM type II model with Standard Model particle content is given. These results impose constraints on several models that have been proposed to explain the recent BNL measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.Comment: 24 pages, 9 figures, Submitted to Euro. Phys. J.

    The physics of dipolar bosonic quantum gases

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    This article reviews the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the study of ultracold gases made of bosonic particles interacting via the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, in addition to the short-range and isotropic contact interaction usually at work in ultracold gases. The specific properties emerging from the dipolar interaction are emphasized, from the mean-field regime valid for dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, to the strongly correlated regimes reached for dipolar bosons in optical lattices.Comment: Review article, 71 pages, 35 figures, 350 references. Submitted to Reports on Progress in Physic

    Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson with the OPAL Detector at LEP

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    This paper summarises the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV performed by the OPAL Collaboration at LEP. The consistency of the data with the background hypothesis and various Higgs boson mass hypotheses is examined. No indication of a signal is found in the data and a lower bound of 112.7GeV/C^2 is obtained on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson at the 95% CL.Comment: 51 pages, 21 figure
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