1,855 research outputs found

    Comparisons Between Public and Private Sector Union Wage Differentials: Does the Legal Environment Matter?

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    A stylized fact in the growing literature on public sector labor markets is that estimates of public sector union wage premia are significantly lower than estimates of private sector union wage premia. In this paper I investigate the hypothesis that this difference may in part be due to the differing legal environments in which public and private sector unions operate. Using data from the Current Population Survey and the Census of Population, I find that public sector union wage differentials increase significantly with the degree of legal protection afforded to the union in bargaining. However, the estimated public sector union wage premia when no legal controls are included in the specification are close to the estimated premia under the strongest legal environment. Consequently, while controlling for the legal environment in the public Sector is important, it may not reconcile the differences between estimated public and private sector union wage premia.

    An Analysis of Public and Private Sector Wages Allowing for Endogenous Choices of Both Government and Union Status

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    Studies of public/private sector wage differentials typically assume that the govenment and union status of a worker are exogenous variables. Recently, some studies have relaxed this assumption slightly by allowing the union status to be endogenous. In this paper, we consider a more general selection model in which a worker selects among four labor markets: private/nonunion, private/union, public/nonunion and public/union. A multinomial logit model is estimated to capture this selection decision. Consistent wage equation estimates are then derived using a generalization of the now familiar two-step estimation procedure. Some evidence is found for selection bias in the private/nonunion and the public/union sectors.The pattern of these selection effects produces larger union wage premiumsin the public as compared to the private sector. While this is in contrast to the standard findings, the standard errors on the public sector union wage differentials are quite high. In addition, the data indicates that the public/private sector wage differential is largest for federal workers despite the "comparability" process determining their wages.

    The Importance of Local Fiscal Conditions in Analyzing Local Labor Markets

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    A new test of the compensating wage differential model is proposed. The logic behind Roback's model showing how differences in nonproduced amenities may be reflected in intercity wage differentials is extended to the case of differences in local fiscal conditions, represented by tax rates and publicly produced services. Results show that differences in local tax rates and services provisions do generate compensating wage differentials across cities. The effects of a particularly large set of taxes and effective services output measures are examined.

    On the Political Economy of Land Value Capitalization and Local Public Sector Rent-Seeking in a Tiebout Model

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    In this paper we examine the political economy. of capitalization in a Tiebout model when there is a rent-seeking public bureaucracy. A new approach is suggested for testing for the influence of successful local public sector rent-seeking on local property values. We present empirical evidence showing that property values are lower in cities which pay their public sector workers significantly more than similar public sector workers earn in other cities. Finally, we discuss how the regulatory process can be used to distribute rents arising from a short-run Tiebout disequilibrium to landowners, public sector workers, and renters.

    Seniority Rules and the Gains from Union Organization

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    This paper examines the optimality of several seniority provisions which are common to U.S. union contracts. The paper focuses on the attempts by the initial union members to maximize their return from organizing the union. An overlapping generations model is used in the analysis. Seniority wage increases are found to serve as implicit initiation fees and thus serve as one means of appropriating rents from future union members. Layoff rules are shown to be optimal only when the organizers are constrained in the types of contracts they can write. Without these constraints, the optimal contract provides full insurance making layoff rules unnecessary. The paper concludes with a plausible set of constraints which organizers may face and discusses the conditions necessary for seniority layoff rules to result.

    An Empirical Test of an Asymmetric Information Model of Strikes

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    Recent developments in the thoery of strategic bargaining demonstrate howinformational asymmetries can lead to prolonged and costly bargaining. These models can be applied to contract negotiations between unions and firms yielding an economic theory of strikes. To date, however, few empirical tests of these models have been carried out. This paper presents some evidence supporting this view of strikes. A set of predictions concerning the incidence and unconditional duration of strikes is derived from a simple bargaining model where the union is uncertain about the firm's future profitability. These predictions are then tested on a micro data set of major U.S. contract negotiations which took place from 1973 to 1977.

    The Best Business Schools: A Market Based Approach

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    We present a new methodology for ranking business schools. Unlike previous rankings based on subjective survey responses (from CEOs, business school deans, recruiters, or graduates), our approach uses data derived from the labor market for new MBAs. We adjust programs' salaries for the quality of entering students in an attempt to distinguish value added from the quality of incoming students. We then rank programs according to value added. Our results are rather surprising. While four of our top five programs are also labelled as top programs in other rankings, ten of our top twenty are previously unranked. By emphasizing program value added, our procedure identifies several programs that have been overlooked by other rankings since they do not recruit the very top students. We explore the determinants of our value added and student quality measures and find that connections to the business community are positively related to value added, while academic research and high faculty salaries are more strongly associated with student quality. We also find that tuition is better explained by our measure of value added than raw salary, suggesting that programs charge according to value added.

    Unions, Bargaining and Strikes

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    Labor disputes are an intriguing feature of the landscape of industrialized economies. Economists have had a long-standing interest in formulating a framework for understanding and analyzing labor disputes. The development of noncooperative bargaining theory provided the tools for a theory of collective bargaining and labor disputes. A general aim of this theoretical development is to inform policy makers of the efficiency and equity effects associated with different labor laws and institutions that govern and shape the collective bargaining process. While this new literature is still evolving, it can already offer many insights into the interplay between policy and the bargaining process. In this chapter, we will provide a sketch of this new collective bargaining theory and illustrate its ability to aid in policy analysis. We will also relate the predictions of the model to existing empirical findings in the literature.Unions, Bargaining, Strikes, Collective Bargaining

    Stocks in the household portfolio: a look back at the 1990s

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    The growing prominence of stocks as a household asset in the 1990s encouraged the view that the United States had become a nation of zealous investors alert to every market development and eager to acquire new stocks. Yet an analysis of the factors behind the rise in the household equity share suggests that exceptionally high returns on stocks_rather than aggressive investment behavior_accounted for much of the increased importance of stocks.Financial markets ; Rate of return

    Exchange Rates and Local Labor Markets

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    We document the consequences of real exchange rate movements for the employment, hours, and hourly earnings of workers in manufacturing industries across individual states. Exchange rates have statistically significant wage and employment implications in these local labor markets. The importance and size of these dollar-induced effects vary considerably across industries and are more pronounced in some U.S. regions. In addition to the importance of exchange rate shocks, we confirm prior research results showing that relatively strong local conditions drive up wage in local industries, while anticipated future (positive) local shocks reduce current wages.
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