2,867 research outputs found

    Structure of air shower disc near the core

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    The longitudinal structure of the air shower disk is studied by measuring the arrival time distributions of air shower particles for showers with electron size in the range 3.2 x 10 to the 5.5. power to 3.2 x 10 to the 7.5 power in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm squared atmospheric depth). The average FWHM as a parameter of thickness of air shower disk increases with core distances at less than 50m. AT the present stage, dependence on electron size, zenith angle and air shower age is not apparent. The average thickness of the air shower disk within a core distance of 50m could be determined by an electromagnetic cascade starting from the lower altitude

    Search for long-lived massive particles in extensive air showers

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    Air showers containing delayed sub-showers which may be produced by a long-lived massive particle have been investigated by using twelve detectors. Ten events have been selected out as the candidates. However, a definite conclusion cannot be reached at the present time

    Minimally invasive double lung transplantation technique (Anteroaxillary approach)

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    Lung transplantation has been performed through several approaches in the past. Sternothoracotomy is the most widely used approach for double lung transplantation. Although bilateral anterolateral thoracotomy for double lung transplantation has been described in the past, this approach has not widely adopted worldwide. The 'anteroaxillary approach' utilizes a limited incision compared to others, preserves sternal anatomy as well as thoracic arteries, and provides an excellent exposure to hilum. We would like to present our standard approach at University of Pittsburgh through anteroaxillary incision

    Donor lung selection criteria and surgical application at University of Pittsburgh

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    Lung transplantation is the standard treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately scarce source of donor organs, particularly in lungs, limits this selected treatment to very few recipients each year. To decrease waiting list deaths and provide organs to more diverse recipient population, widening selection criteria of donor lungs was offered. Besides expanded criteria in organ selection to increase lung transplant surgery, donation after cardiac death and ex-vivo lung perfusion were introduced to current medicine. University of Pittsburgh in last decade doubled its lung transplant volume by extending the acceptance criteria for donor lungs for which many other centers would decline in first line or some selected centers may try ex-vivo perfusion protocols on these lungs. Nonetheless successful transplant surgery requires successful donor procurement surgery. Based on this practice, we wanted to review the Pittsburgh model of expanding lung donor selection criteria and surgery for donor lung procurement

    Provenance changes of eolian dust at Lingtai section in the Chinese Loess Plateau since 7 Ma and its implication for desert development in East Asia

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    International audienceIt is suggested that the uplift of Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau enhanced interior aridity in East Asia and resulted in development of middle latitude gobi and sandy deserts and accumulation of the eolian sediments in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Therefore, estimation of the provenance for eolian sediments in the Chinese Loess Plateau is critical to reconstruct the environmental changes in East Asia and their relation to the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau uplift. We recently developed a new provenance tracing method by using a combination of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) signal intensity and Crystallinity Index (CI) of quartz, and demonstrated that fine fraction of the surface sediments from nine major deserts in East Asia could be distinguished one another on the ESR signal intensity versus CI diagram. Here, we measured ESR signal intensity and CI of quartz in fine fractions of samples covering the last 7 Ma obtained from Lingtai section in the central Chinese Loess Plateau, and compared the results with those of the surface samples from nine major deserts in East Asia. The results suggest that the provenance of fine fraction of the eolian sediment in Lingtai section changed at 4.3, 2.1, 1.4, 1.1, 0.8 and 0.4 Ma. During 7 to 4.3 Ma, the dust might be have been supplied from Precambrian to Paleozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks and granite exposed in the present central to eastern part of the Tian Shan Mountains. The contribution from the Taklimakan desert appeared at 4.3 Ma, increased drastically at 1.1 Ma, and persisted till 0.8 Ma, whereas the main source of detrital material to the Taklimakan desert might have changed from eastern part of the Kunlun and the Altyn Mountains to western part of the Kunlun and the Tian Shan Mountains. During 0.8 to 0.4 Ma, contribution from the Badain Juran desert gradually increased. Finally, contribution from the Tengger desert appeared from 0.4 to 0 Ma. Together with tectonic evidences from literatures, the provenance changes from 4.3 to 0.8 Ma seem to reflect uplift of the Tian Shan and the Kunlun Mountains and consequent formation of the Taklimakan desert, whereas the change at 0.4 Ma may reflect uplift of the Qilian Mountains although formation of mountain glaciers could be an alternative possibility. These provenance changes will provide important constraints not only on the development of arid areas and evolution of monsoon but also on the uplift and erosion of mountains in East Asia

    Oidium neolycopersici: Intra-specific variability inferred from AFLP analysis and relationship with closely related powdery mildew fungi infecting various plant species

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    Previous works indicated a considerable variation in the pathogenicity, virulence, and host range of Oidium neolycopersici isolates causing tomato powdery mildew epidemics in many parts of the world. In this study, rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns were analyzed in 17 O. neolycopersici samples collected in Europe, North America, and Japan, including those which overcame some of the tomato major resistance genes. The ITS sequences were identical in all 10 samples tested and were also identical to ITS sequences of eight previously studied O. neolycopersici specimens. The AFLP analysis revealed a high genetic diversity in O. neolycopersici and indicated that all 17 samples represented different genotypes. This might suggest the existence of either a yet unrevealed sexual reproduction or other genetic mechanisms that maintain a high genetic variability in O. neolycopersici. No clear correlation was found between the virulence and the AFLP patterns of the O. neolycopersici isolates studied. The relationship between O. neolycopersici and powdery mildew anamorphs infecting Aquilegia vulgaris, Chelidonium majus, Passiflora caerulea, and Sedum alboroseum was also investigated. These anamorphs are morphologically indistinguishable from and phylogenetically closely related to O. neolycopersici. The cross-inoculation tests and the analyses of ITS sequences and AFLP patterns jointly indicated that the powdery mildew anamorphs collected from the above mentioned plant species all represent distinct, but closely related species according to the phylogenetic species recognition. All these species were pathogenic only to their original host plant species, except O. neolycopersici which infected S. alboroseum, tobacco, petunia, and Arabidopsis thaliana, in addition to tomato, in cross-inoculation tests. This is the first genome-wide study that investigates the relationships among powdery mildews that are closely related based on ITS sequences and morphology. The results indicate that morphologically indistinguishable powdery mildews that differed in only one to five single nucleotide positions in their ITS region are to be considered as different taxa with distinct host ranges

    Structure and expression of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) subgroup I gene in pea and oxidoreductase activity of their recombinant proteins

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    Recently, we observed that expression of a pea gene (S64) encoding an oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPR) was induced by a suppressor of pea defense responses, secreted by the pea pathogen Mycosphaerella pinodes. Because it is known that OPRs are usually encoded by families of homologous genes, we screened for genomic and cDNA clones encoding members of this putative OPR family in pea. We isolated five members of the OPR gene family from a pea genomic DNA library, and amplified six cDNA clones, including S64, by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR). Sequencing analysis revealed that S64 corresponds to PsOPR2, and the amino acid sequences of the predicted products of the six OPR-like genes shared more than 80% identity with each other. Based on their sequence similarity, all these OPR-like genes code for OPRs of subgroup I, i.e., enzymes which are not required for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. However, the genes varied in their exon/intron organization and in their promoter sequences. To investigate the expression of each individual OPR-like gene, RT-PCR was performed using gene-specific primers. The results indicated that the OPR-like gene most strongly induced by the inoculation of pea plants with a compatible pathogen and by treatment with the suppressor from M. pinodes was PsOPR2. Furthermore, the ability of the six recombinant OPR-like proteins to reduce a model substrate, 2-cyclohexen-1-one (2-CyHE), was investigated. The results indicated that PsOPR1, 4 and 6 display robust activity, and PsOPR2 has a most remarkable ability to reduce 2-CyHE, whereas PsOPR3 has little and PsOPR5 does not reduce this compound. Thus, the six OPR-like proteins can be classified into four types. Interestingly, the gene structures, expression profiles, and enzymatic activities used to classify each member of the pea OPR-like gene family are clearly correlated, indicating that each member of this OPR-like family has a distinct function.</p
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