6 research outputs found

    Variables de contaminaci√≥n seg√ļn normatividad colombiana o internacional que afectan la salud p√ļblica

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    El presente art√≠culo expone seg√ļn normatividad nacional a internacional las variables de contaminaci√≥n del agua, aire, ruido y radiaciones no ionizantes que inciden en la afectaci√≥n de la salud en la poblaci√≥n del municipio de Neiva. Objetivo, Determinar seg√ļn lineamientos de normatividad colombiana e internacional esas variables de mayor afectaci√≥n en la salud de los habitantes del municipio de Neiva. Metodolog√≠a, El proyecto de investigaci√≥n es de tipo cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo buscando identificar variables con los factores contaminantes en la ciudad de Neiva. Luego se realiza un an√°lisis documental en relaci√≥n a las normas nacionales e internacionales que se involucran con los procesos de contaminaci√≥n determinando m√≠nimos y m√°ximos de cada tipo de contaminaci√≥n que afectar√≠an la poblaci√≥n conformada por 342.12 habitantes de la ciudad de Neiva. Resultados, El an√°lisis documental realizado, permite verificar las normas colombianas e internacionales que determinan variables a considerar por cada tipo contaminaci√≥n como lo son: el aire, el agua, ac√ļstica y las radiaciones no ionizantes que afectan la salud de las personas, como por ejemplo: el sistema respiratorio de las personas que viven expuestas a di√≥xido de carbono, enfermedades cardiacas, c√°ncer de pulm√≥n, dilataci√≥n de las pupilas y parpadeo acelerado, agitaci√≥n respiratoria y taquicardias, aumento de la presi√≥n arterial, dolor de cabeza, hepatitis A, c√≥lera, fiebre tifoidea, alteraciones en la fertilidad, enfermedades como el c√°ncer, sistema inmunol√≥gico y el aparato cardiovascular, esto se determina por la mayor exposici√≥n y altos niveles de tipos de contaminaci√≥n a la cual est√° expuestas las personas. Conclusiones, Existen hip√≥tesis de efectos en la salud lo largo del tiempo a causa de la exposici√≥n de la contaminaci√≥n del aire, agua, ruido y radiaciones no ionizantes que deben ser comprobadas con rigor cient√≠fico para que sean concluyentes y permitan generar propuestas de prevenci√≥n para la salud p√ļblica de los habitantes de Neiva

    Subcortical brain volume, regional cortical thickness, and cortical surface area across disorders: findings from the ENIGMA ADHD, ASD, and OCD Working Groups

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    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. We aimed to directly compare all three disorders. The ENIGMA consortium is ideally positioned to investigate structural brain alterations across these disorders. Methods Structural T1-weighted whole-brain MRI of controls (n=5,827) and patients with ADHD (n=2,271), ASD (n=1,777), and OCD (n=2,323) from 151 cohorts worldwide were analyzed using standardized processing protocols. We examined subcortical volume, cortical thickness and surface area differences within a mega-analytical framework, pooling measures extracted from each cohort. Analyses were performed separately for children, adolescents, and adults using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex and site (and ICV for subcortical and surface area measures). Results We found no shared alterations among all three disorders, while shared alterations between any two disorders did not survive multiple comparisons correction. Children with ADHD compared to those with OCD had smaller hippocampal volumes, possibly influenced by IQ. Children and adolescents with ADHD also had smaller ICV than controls and those with OCD or ASD. Adults with ASD showed thicker frontal cortices compared to adult controls and other clinical groups. No OCD-specific alterations across different age-groups and surface area alterations among all disorders in childhood and adulthood were observed. Conclusion Our findings suggest robust but subtle alterations across different age-groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific ICV and hippocampal alterations in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness alterations in the frontal cortex in adults support previous work emphasizing neurodevelopmental alterations in these disorders

    Risk of COVID-19 after natural infection or vaccinationResearch in context

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    Summary: Background: While vaccines have established utility against COVID-19, phase 3 efficacy studies have generally not comprehensively evaluated protection provided by previous infection or hybrid immunity (previous infection plus vaccination). Individual patient data from US government-supported harmonized vaccine trials provide an unprecedented sample population to address this issue. We characterized the protective efficacy of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and hybrid immunity against COVID-19 early in the pandemic over three-to six-month follow-up and compared with vaccine-associated protection. Methods: In this post-hoc cross-protocol analysis of the Moderna, AstraZeneca, Janssen, and Novavax COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials, we allocated participants into four groups based on previous-infection status at enrolment and treatment: no previous infection/placebo; previous infection/placebo; no previous infection/vaccine; and previous infection/vaccine. The main outcome was RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 >7‚Äď15 days (per original protocols) after final study injection. We calculated crude and adjusted efficacy measures. Findings: Previous infection/placebo participants had a 92% decreased risk of future COVID-19 compared to no previous infection/placebo participants (overall hazard ratio [HR] ratio: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.05‚Äď0.13). Among single-dose Janssen participants, hybrid immunity conferred greater protection than vaccine alone (HR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01‚Äď0.10). Too few infections were observed to draw statistical inferences comparing hybrid immunity to vaccine alone for other trials. Vaccination, previous infection, and hybrid immunity all provided near-complete protection against severe disease. Interpretation: Previous infection, any hybrid immunity, and two-dose vaccination all provided substantial protection against symptomatic and severe COVID-19 through the early Delta period. Thus, as a surrogate for natural infection, vaccination remains the safest approach to protection. Funding: National Institutes of Health

    Genomewide Clonal Analysis of Lethal Mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster Eye: Comparison of the X Chromosome and Autosomes

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    Using a large consortium of undergraduate students in an organized program at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), we have undertaken a functional genomic screen in the Drosophila eye. In addition to the educational value of discovery-based learning, this article presents the first comprehensive genomewide analysis of essential genes involved in eye development. The data reveal the surprising result that the X chromosome has almost twice the frequency of essential genes involved in eye development as that found on the autosomes