115 research outputs found

    Stochastic mean field formulation of the dynamics of diluted neural networks

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    We consider pulse-coupled Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neural networks with randomly distributed synaptic couplings. This random dilution induces fluctuations in the evolution of the macroscopic variables and deterministic chaos at the microscopic level. Our main aim is to mimic the effect of the dilution as a noise source acting on the dynamics of a globally coupled non-chaotic system. Indeed, the evolution of a diluted neural network can be well approximated as a fully pulse coupled network, where each neuron is driven by a mean synaptic current plus additive noise. These terms represent the average and the fluctuations of the synaptic currents acting on the single neurons in the diluted system. The main microscopic and macroscopic dynamical features can be retrieved with this stochastic approximation. Furthermore, the microscopic stability of the diluted network can be also reproduced, as demonstrated from the almost coincidence of the measured Lyapunov exponents in the deterministic and stochastic cases for an ample range of system sizes. Our results strongly suggest that the fluctuations in the synaptic currents are responsible for the emergence of chaos in this class of pulse coupled networks.Comment: 12 Pages, 4 Figure

    Out-of-equilibrium versus dynamical and thermodynamical transitions for a model protein

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    Equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium transitions of an off-lattice protein model have been identified and studied. In particular, the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of the protein undergoing mechanical unfolding is investigated, and by using a work fluctuation relation, the system free energy landscape is evaluated. Three different structural transitions are identified along the unfolding pathways. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the the free and potential energy profiles in terms of inherent structure formalism allows us to put in direct correspondence these transitions with the equilibrium thermal transitions relevant for protein folding/unfolding. Through the study of the fluctuations of the protein structure at different temperatures, we identify the dynamical transitions, related to configurational rearrangements of the protein, which are precursors of the thermal transitions.Comment: Proceedings of the "YKIS 2009 : Frontiers in Nonequilibrium Physics" conference in Kyoto, August 2009. To appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplemen

    Synchronization of spatio-temporal chaos as an absorbing phase transition: a study in 2+1 dimensions

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    The synchronization transition between two coupled replicas of spatio-temporal chaotic systems in 2+1 dimensions is studied as a phase transition into an absorbing state - the synchronized state. Confirming the scenario drawn in 1+1 dimensional systems, the transition is found to belong to two different universality classes - Multiplicative Noise (MN) and Directed Percolation (DP) - depending on the linear or nonlinear character of damage spreading occurring in the coupled systems. By comparing coupled map lattice with two different stochastic models, accurate numerical estimates for MN in 2+1 dimensions are obtained. Finally, aiming to pave the way for future experimental studies, slightly non-identical replicas have been considered. It is shown that the presence of small differences between the dynamics of the two replicas acts as an external field in the context of absorbing phase transitions, and can be characterized in terms of a suitable critical exponent.Comment: Submitted to Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experimen

    Thin front propagation in steady and unsteady cellular flows

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    Front propagation in two dimensional steady and unsteady cellular flows is investigated in the limit of very fast reaction and sharp front, i.e., in the geometrical optics limit. In the steady case, by means of a simplified model, we provide an analytical approximation for the front speed, vfv_{{\scriptsize{f}}}, as a function of the stirring intensity, UU, in good agreement with the numerical results and, for large UU, the behavior vf∼U/log⁡(U)v_{{\scriptsize{f}}}\sim U/\log(U) is predicted. The large scale of the velocity field mainly rules the front speed behavior even in the presence of smaller scales. In the unsteady (time-periodic) case, the front speed displays a phase-locking on the flow frequency and, albeit the Lagrangian dynamics is chaotic, chaos in front dynamics only survives for a transient. Asymptotically the front evolves periodically and chaos manifests only in the spatially wrinkled structure of the front.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figure

    Intermittent chaotic chimeras for coupled rotators

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    Two symmetrically coupled populations of N oscillators with inertia mm display chaotic solutions with broken symmetry similar to experimental observations with mechanical pendula. In particular, we report the first evidence of intermittent chaotic chimeras, where one population is synchronized and the other jumps erratically between laminar and turbulent phases. These states have finite life-times diverging as a power-law with N and m. Lyapunov analyses reveal chaotic properties in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for globally coupled dissipative systems.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures SUbmitted to Physical Review E, as Rapid Communicatio

    ERROR PROPAGATION IN EXTENDED CHAOTIC SYSTEMS

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    A strong analogy is found between the evolution of localized disturbances in extended chaotic systems and the propagation of fronts separating different phases. A condition for the evolution to be controlled by nonlinear mechanisms is derived on the basis of this relationship. An approximate expression for the nonlinear velocity is also determined by extending the concept of Lyapunov exponent to growth rate of finite perturbations.Comment: Tex file without figures- Figures and text in post-script available via anonymous ftp at ftp://wpts0.physik.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/torcini/jpa_le

    Nonlinear dynamics in one dimension: On a criterion for coarsening and its temporal law

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    We develop a general criterion about coarsening for a class of nonlinear evolution equations describing one dimensional pattern-forming systems. This criterion allows one to discriminate between the situation where a coarsening process takes place and the one where the wavelength is fixed in the course of time. An intermediate scenario may occur, namely `interrupted coarsening'. The power of the criterion lies in the fact that the statement about the occurrence of coarsening, or selection of a length scale, can be made by only inspecting the behavior of the branch of steady state periodic solutions. The criterion states that coarsening occurs if lambda'(A)>0 while a length scale selection prevails if lambda'(A)<0, where lambdalambda is the wavelength of the pattern and A is the amplitude of the profile. This criterion is established thanks to the analysis of the phase diffusion equation of the pattern. We connect the phase diffusion coefficient D(lambda) (which carries a kinetic information) to lambda'(A), which refers to a pure steady state property. The relationship between kinetics and the behavior of the branch of steady state solutions is established fully analytically for several classes of equations. Another important and new result which emerges here is that the exploitation of the phase diffusion coefficient enables us to determine in a rather straightforward manner the dynamical coarsening exponent. Our calculation, based on the idea that |D(lambda)|=lambda^2/t, is exemplified on several nonlinear equations, showing that the exact exponent is captured. Some speculations about the extension of the present results to higher dimension are outlined.Comment: 16 pages. Only a few minor changes. Accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations

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    Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of an weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figures, submitted to Chao
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