34 research outputs found

    Multi-level Feature Fusion-based CNN for Local Climate Zone Classification from Sentinel-2 Images: Benchmark Results on the So2Sat LCZ42 Dataset

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    As a unique classification scheme for urban forms and functions, the local climate zone (LCZ) system provides essential general information for any studies related to urban environments, especially on a large scale. Remote sensing data-based classification approaches are the key to large-scale mapping and monitoring of LCZs. The potential of deep learning-based approaches is not yet fully explored, even though advanced convolutional neural networks (CNNs) continue to push the frontiers for various computer vision tasks. One reason is that published studies are based on different datasets, usually at a regional scale, which makes it impossible to fairly and consistently compare the potential of different CNNs for real-world scenarios. This study is based on the big So2Sat LCZ42 benchmark dataset dedicated to LCZ classification. Using this dataset, we studied a range of CNNs of varying sizes. In addition, we proposed a CNN to classify LCZs from Sentinel-2 images, Sen2LCZ-Net. Using this base network, we propose fusing multi-level features using the extended Sen2LCZ-Net-MF. With this proposed simple network architecture and the highly competitive benchmark dataset, we obtain results that are better than those obtained by the state-of-the-art CNNs, while requiring less computation with fewer layers and parameters. Large-scale LCZ classification examples of completely unseen areas are presented, demonstrating the potential of our proposed Sen2LCZ-Net-MF as well as the So2Sat LCZ42 dataset. We also intensively investigated the influence of network depth and width and the effectiveness of the design choices made for Sen2LCZ-Net-MF. Our work will provide important baselines for future CNN-based algorithm developments for both LCZ classification and other urban land cover land use classification

    Multi-level Feature Fusion-based CNN for Local Climate Zone Classification from Sentinel-2 Images: Benchmark Results on the So2Sat LCZ42 Dataset

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    As a unique classification scheme for urban forms and functions, the local climate zone (LCZ) system provides essential general information for any studies related to urban environments, especially on a large scale. Remote sensing data-based classification approaches are the key to large-scale mapping and monitoring of LCZs. The potential of deep learning-based approaches is not yet fully explored, even though advanced convolutional neural networks (CNNs) continue to push the frontiers for various computer vision tasks. One reason is that published studies are based on different datasets, usually at a regional scale, which makes it impossible to fairly and consistently compare the potential of different CNNs for real-world scenarios. This article is based on the big So2Sat LCZ42 benchmark dataset dedicated to LCZ classification. Using this dataset, we studied a range of CNNs of varying sizes. In addition, we proposed a CNN to classify LCZs from Sentinel-2 images, Sen2LCZ-Net. Using this base network, we propose fusing multilevel features using the extended Sen2LCZ-Net-MF. With this proposed simple network architecture, and the highly competitive benchmark dataset, we obtain results that are better than those obtained by the state-of-the-art CNNs, while requiring less computation with fewer layers and parameters. Large-scale LCZ classification examples of completely unseen areas are presented, demonstrating the potential of our proposed Sen2LCZ-Net-MF as well as the So2Sat LCZ42 dataset. We also intensively investigated the influence of network depth and width, and the effectiveness of the design choices made for Sen2LCZ-Net-MF. This article will provide important baselines for future CNN-based algorithm developments for both LCZ classification and other urban land cover land use classification. Code and pretrained models are available at https://github.com/ChunpingQiu/benchmark-on-So2SatLCZ42-dataset-a-simple-tour

    A point-feature label placement algorithm based on spatial data mining

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    The point-feature label placement (PFLP) refers to the process of positioning labels near point features on a map while adhering to specific rules and guidelines, finally obtaining clear, aesthetically pleasing, and conflict-free maps. While various approaches have been suggested for automated point feature placement on maps, few studies have fully considered the spatial distribution characteristics and label correlations of point datasets, resulting in poor label quality in the process of solving the label placement of dense and complex point datasets. In this paper, we propose a point-feature label placement algorithm based on spatial data mining that analyzes the local spatial distribution characteristics and label correlations of point features. The algorithm quantifies the interference among point features by designing a label frequent pattern framework (LFPF) and constructs an ascending label ordering method based on the pattern to reduce interference. Besides, three classical metaheuristic algorithms (simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm, and ant colony algorithm) are applied to the PFLP in combination with the framework to verify the validity of this framework. Additionally, a bit-based grid spatial index is proposed to reduce cache memory and consumption time in conflict detection. The performance of the experiments is tested with 4000, 10000, and 20000 points of POI data obtained randomly under various label densities. The results of these experiments showed that: (1) the proposed method outperformed both the original algorithm and recent literature, with label quality improvements ranging from 3 to 6.7 and from 0.1 to 2.6, respectively. (2) The label efficiency was improved by 58.2% compared with the traditional grid index

    Spatial-temporal diffusion model of aggregated infectious diseases based on population life characteristics: a case study of COVID-19

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    Outbreaks of infectious diseases pose significant threats to human life, and countries around the world need to implement more precise prevention and control measures to contain the spread of viruses. In this study, we propose a spatial-temporal diffusion model of infectious diseases under a discrete grid, based on the time series prediction of infectious diseases, to model the diffusion process of viruses in population. This model uses the estimated outbreak origin as the center of transmission, employing a tree-like structure of daily human travel to generalize the process of viral spread within the population. By incorporating diverse data, it simulates the congregation of people, thus quantifying the flow weights between grids for population movement. The model is validated with some Chinese cities with COVID-19 outbreaks, and the results show that the outbreak point estimation method could better estimate the virus transmission center of the epidemic. The estimated location of the outbreak point in Xi'an was only 0.965 km different from the actual one, and the results were more satisfactory. The spatiotemporal diffusion model for infectious diseases simulates daily newly infected areas, which effectively cover the actual patient infection zones on the same day. During the mid-stage of viral transmission, the coverage rate can increase to over 90%, compared to related research, this method has improved simulation accuracy by approximately 18%. This study can provide technical support for epidemic prevention and control, and assist decision-makers in developing more scientific and efficient epidemic prevention and control policies

    A Rapid Beam Pointing Determination and Beam-Pointing Error Analysis Method for a Geostationary Orbiting Microwave Radiometer Antenna in Consideration of Antenna Thermal Distortions

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    When observing the Earth’s radiation signal with a geostationary orbiting (GEO) mechanically scanned microwave radiometer, it is necessary to correct the antenna beam pointing (ABP) in real time for the deviation caused by thermal distortions of antenna reflectors with the help of the on-board Image Navigation and Registration (INR) system during scanning of the Earth. The traditional ABP determination and beam-pointing error (BPE) analysis method is based on the electromechanical coupling principle, which usurps time and computing resources and thus cannot meet the requirement for frequent real-time on-board INR operations needed by the GEO microwave radiometer. For this reason, matrix optics (MO), which is widely used in characterizing the optical path of the visible/infrared sensor, is extended to this study so that it can be applied to model the equivalent optical path of the microwave antenna with a much more complicated configuration. Based on the extended MO method, the ideal ABP determination model and the model for determining the actual ABP affected by reflector thermal distortions are deduced for China’s future GEO radiometer, and an MO-based BPE computing method, which establishes a direct connection between the reflector thermal distortion errors (TDEs) and the thermally induced BPE, is defined. To verify the overall performance of the extended MO method for rapid ABP determination, the outputs from the ideal ABP determination model were compared to calculations from GRASP 10.3 software. The experimental results show that the MO-based ABP determination model can achieve the same results as GRASP software with a significant advantage in computational efficiency (e.g., at the lowest frequency band of 54 GHz, our MO-based model yielded a 4,730,000 times faster computation time than the GRASP software). After validating the correctness of the extended MO method, the impacts of the reflector TDEs on the BPE were quantified on a case-by-case basis with the help of the defined BPE computing method, and those TDEs that had a significant impact on the BPE were therefore identified. The methods and results presented in this study are expected to set the basis for the further development of on-board INR systems to be used in China’s future GEO microwave radiometer and benefit the ABP determination and BEP analysis of other antenna configurations to a certain extent

    A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

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    As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT) that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision) and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics

    Overview of the Research Progress in the Earth Tessellation Grid

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    By analyzing the related literatures on the earth tessellation grid (ETG) in recent 10 years, the research achievements in this field are systematic reviewed in four aspects, i.e. the earth subdivision modeling (include quadrangle subdivision, equal-area subdivision and 3D subdivision), encoding computation (include hierarchical encoding computation, filling curve encoding computation and integer coordinate encoding computation), grid quality assessment (include evaluation criteria, evaluation factors, and propagation trend in diffferent levels) and typical applications (include government agency applications,business software applications and industry applications). The structural characteristics, applicable models and their shortcomings in the different grid models are given in details. Finally, some advanced academic problems in the ETG are given based on the completeness of basic theory, the efficiency of grid computing, and the reliability of grid quality

    Multiscale Integer Coding and Data Index of 3D Spatial Grid

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    This paper proposed a multiscale integer coding and index method available for 3D spatial grid area based on the exiting problems of 3D spatial grid.This method used integer to unify coding the region divided by regular grid, formed a tree structure showed the size relationship and scale variation of grid which embodied the spatial relationships in different scale grid:include, be included, adjacent and so on, and achieved the unified integer coding of multi-scale grid in the end.On this basis, a serious of basic operation methods were also studied like:level operation, coordinate transformation operation between coding and grid, parent-unit query and sub-unit query.The contrast experiment was designed to compare this method with 3D R-tree index of Oracle Spatial.The result showed that, multiscale integer coding of 3D spatial grid was superior to the 3D R-tree of Oracle Spatial in data importing, index establishing and region querying, and the efficiency were enhanced about two times, forty-six times and four times respectively
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