38 research outputs found

    Structure of Critical Lines in Quenched Lattice QCD with the Wilson Quark Action

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    The structure of critical lines of vanishing pion mass for the Wilson quark action is examined in quenched lattice QCD. The numerical evidence is presented that critical lines spread into five branches beyond beta=5.6-5.7 at zero temperature. It is also shown that critical lines disappear in the deconfined phase for the case of finite temperatures.Comment: 11 pages, Latex, 7 Postscript figures, uses epsf.st

    Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the <sup>10</sup>B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require <sup>10</sup>B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues.</p> <p>Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration.</p> <p>In this study, we developed a novel vector for <sup>10</sup>B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH), and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors <it>in vivo</it>, and bio-distribution) and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher <sup>10</sup>B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5) were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (<it>p < 0.05</it>). In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as effective with CG-HVJ-E-BSH as with BSH containing a 35-fold higher <sup>10</sup>B dose. Furthermore, CG-HVJ-E-BSH significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing mice compared to BSH at a comparable dosage of <sup>10</sup>B.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>CG-HVJ-E-BSH is a promising strategy for the BNCT treatment of visceral tumors without severe adverse events to surrounding normal tissues.</p

    Identification of mutations through dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains

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    The discovery of leptin substantiated the usefulness of a forward genetic approach in elucidating the molecular network regulating energy metabolism. However, no successful dominant screening for obesity has been reported, which may be due to the influence of quantitative trait loci between the screening and counter strains and the low fertility of obese mice. Here, we performed a dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains, C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N, with the routine use of in vitro fertilization. The screening of more than 5000 mutagenized mice established two obese pedigrees in which single nucleotide substitutions in Mc4r and Sim1 genes were identified through whole-exome sequencing. The mutation in the Mc4r gene produces a premature stop codon, and the mutant SIM1 protein lacks transcriptional activity, showing that the haploinsufficiency of SIM1 and MC4R results in obesity. We further examined the hypothalamic neuropeptide expressions in the mutant pedigrees and mice with diet-induced obesity, which showed that each obesity mouse model has distinct neuropeptide expression profiles. This forward genetic screening scheme is useful and applicable to any research field in which mouse models work

    An error evaluation scheme based on rotation of magnetic field in adaptive finite element analysis

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    The finite-element analysis is widely used in design stage of electromagnetic apparatuses. The analysis accuracy depends on the characteristics of the finite-element mesh, e.g., number of nodes, number of elements and shape of elements. Recently, the adaptive finite-element analysis is one of the most promising numerical analysis techniques. In process of the adaptive finite-element method, the error evaluation is one of the important schemes. In this paper, a new error evaluation scheme, which is suitable for electromagnetic problems, is proposed The proposed error evaluation method is then applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional magnetostatic field problems for its verificatio

    A Fast Volume Rendering Method for Time-Varying 3-D Scalar Field Visualization Using Orthonormal Wavelets

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    Animation of a time-varying 3-D scalar field distribution requires generation of a set of images at a sampled time intervals i.e. frames. Although, volume rendering method can be very advantageous for such 3-D scalar field visualizations, in case of animation, the computation time needed for generation of the entire set of image can be considerably long