12 research outputs found

    How primordial is the structure of comet 67P/C-G? Combined collisional and dynamical models suggest a late formation

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    There is an active debate about whether the properties of comets as observed today are primordial or, alternatively, if they are a result of collisional evolution or other processes. We investigate the effects of collisions on a comet with a structure like 67P/C-G. We develop scaling laws for the critical specific impact energies required for a significant shape alteration. These are then used in simulations of the combined dynamical and collisional evolution of comets in order to study the survival probability of a primordially formed object with a shape like 67P/C-G. The effects of impacts on comet 67P/C-G are studied using a SPH shock physics code. The resulting critical specific impact energy defines a minimal projectile size which is used to compute the number of shape-changing collisions in a set of dynamical simulations. These simulations follow the dispersion of the trans-Neptunian disk during the giant planet instability, the formation of a scattered disk, and produce 87 objects that penetrate into the inner solar system with orbits consistent with the observed JFC population. The collisional evolution before the giant planet instability is not considered here. Hence, our study is conservative in its estimation of the number of collisions. We find that in any scenario considered here, comet 67P/C-G would have experienced a significant number of shape-changing collisions, if it formed primordially. This is also the case for generic bi-lobe shapes. Our study also shows that impact heating is very localized and that collisionally processed bodies can still have a high porosity. Our study indicates that the observed bi-lobe structure of comet 67P/C-G may not be primordial, but might have originated in a rather recent event, possibly within the last 1 Gy. This may be the case for any kilometer-sized two-component cometary nuclei.Comment: Astronomy & Astrophysics, accepted pending minor revision


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    In 2 partsSIGLEAvailable from British Library Document Supply Centre-DSC:4300.3809(9) / BLDSC - British Library Document Supply Centre9. ed.GBUnited Kingdo

    Detection of hypermethylation in the CpG Islands of the p16 INK4A

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    Evaluation of the prognostic and predictive value of p53 and Bcl-2 in breast cancer patients participating in a randomized study with dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy

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    Purpose: To assess the prognostic and predictive significance of p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression in high risk patients with breast cancer treated with dose-dense sequential chemotherapy. Patients and methods: From June 1997 until November 2000, 595 patients were randomized to three cycles of epirubicin (E) 110 mg/m 2 followed by three cycles of paclitaxel (P) 250 mg/m 2 followed by three cycles of 'intensified' CMF (cyclophosphamide 840 mg/m 2, methotrexate 47 mg/m 2 and fluorouracil 840 mg/m 2) or to four cycles of E, followed by four cycles of CMF. p53 and Bcl-2 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 392 and 397 patients respectively. Results: Positive expression of p53 was detected in 104 (26.5%) patients and was significantly associated with negative hormonal status, worse histologic grade, higher incidence of disease relapse and higher rate of death. p53 positive expression was a significant negative predictor of overall survival (OS) (P = 0.002) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.001). Negative expression of Bcl-2 was detected in 203 (51%) patients and was significantly associated with negative hormonal status. Multivariate analysis revealed that, positive p53 expression, higher number of positive nodes and worse tumor grade were related to significantly poorer OS and DFS. Conclusions: For both treatments, p53 positive expression was a significant negative prognostic factor for OS and DFS while Bcl-2 was not. No predictive ability of p53 status or Bcl-2 status for paclitaxel treatment was evident. ┬ę 2006 Oxford University Press