442 research outputs found

    Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction of Low Alloy Steels

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    The creep-fatigue behavior of Cr-Mo steels has been examined from published data. The published data were compiled in an earlier effort and used in this paper to develop a multivariate best-fit equation to predict the low cycle fatigue life. The fatigue test temperatures were representative of temperatures experienced in nuclear power plants, which varied from room temperature to 600°C. Within this temperature range, depending upon the test parameters used, creep and fatigue processes interact and failure occurs in the lowcycle fatigue regime

    A Governance Perspective for System-of-Systems

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    The operating landscape of 21st century systems is characteristically ambiguous, emergent, and uncertain. These characteristics affect the capacity and performance of engineered systems/enterprises. In response, there are increasing calls for multidisciplinary approaches capable of confronting increasingly ambiguous, emergent, and uncertain systems. System of Systems Engineering (SoSE) is an example of such an approach. A key aspect of SoSE is the coordination and the integration of systems to enable ‘system-of-systems’ capabilities greater than the sum of the capabilities of the constituent systems. However, there is a lack of qualitative studies exploring how coordination and integration are achieved. The objective of this research is to revisit SoSE utility as a potential multidisciplinary approach and to suggest ‘governance’ as the basis for enabling ‘system-of-systems’ coordination and integration. In this case, ‘governance’ is concerned with direction, oversight, and accountability of ‘system-of-systems.’ ‘Complex System Governance’ is a new and novel basis for improving ‘system-of-system’ performance through purposeful design, execution, and evolution of essential metasystem functions.

    Sunset Trail of Gold

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    [Verse 1] Dear heart, the scenes of yesterday Have vanished with the past, For like the rose of fragrance sweet They could not always last. But roses rare will bloom again And fairest buds unfold: We walk today the rose-strewn way, Adown the sunset trail of gold. [Verse 2] Dear heart, the twilight’s afterglow Gleams softly over all, And across the trail before us The deep’ning shadows fall. But down life’s western glinting path Love’s story still is told, And crimson bars will greet the stars, Adown the sunset trail of gold

    Database, Features, and Machine Learning Model to Identify Thermally Driven Metal-Insulator Transition Compounds

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    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) compounds are materials that may exhibit insulating or metallic behavior, depending on the physical conditions, and are of immense fundamental interest owing to their potential applications in emerging microelectronics. There is a dearth of thermally-driven MIT materials, however, which makes delineating these compounds from those that are exclusively insulating or metallic challenging. Here we report a material database comprising temperature-controlled MITs (and metals and insulators with similar chemical composition and stoichiometries to the MIT compounds) from high quality experimental literature, built through a combination of materials-domain knowledge and natural language processing. We featurize the dataset using compositional, structural, and energetic descriptors, including two MIT relevant energy scales, an estimated Hubbard interaction and the charge transfer energy, as well as the structure-bond-stress metric referred to as the global-instability index (GII). We then perform supervised classification, constructing three electronic-state classifiers: metal vs non-metal (M), insulator vs non-insulator (I), and MIT vs non-MIT (T). We identify two important descriptors that separate metals, insulators, and MIT materials in a 2D feature space: the average deviation of the covalent radius and the range of the Mendeleev number. We further elaborate on other important features (GII and Ewald energy), and examine how they affect classification of binary vanadium and titanium oxides. We discuss the relationship of these atomic features to the physical interactions underlying MITs in the rare-earth nickelate family. Last, we implement an online version of the classifiers, enabling quick probabilistic class predictions by uploading a crystallographic structure file

    Evaluation of polygenic risk scores for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

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    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 94 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk and 18 associated with ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Several of these are also associated with risk of BC or OC for women who carry a pathogenic mutation in the high-risk BC and OC genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. The combined effects of these variants on BC or OC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have not yet been assessed while their clinical management could benefit from improved personalized risk estimates. Methods: We constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) using BC and OC susceptibility SNPs identified through population-based GWAS: for BC (overall, estrogen receptor [ER]-positive, and ER-negative) and for OC. Using data from 15 252 female BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 carriers, the association of each PRS with BC or OC risk was evaluated using a weighted cohort approach, with time to diagnosis as the outcome and estimation of the hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation increase in the PRS. Results: The PRS for ER-negative BC displayed the strongest association with BC risk in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31, P = 8.2 x 10(53)). In BRCA2 carriers, the strongest association with BC risk was seen for the overall BC PRS (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.28, P = 7.2 x 10(-20)). The OC PRS was strongly associated with OC risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These translate to differences in absolute risks (more than 10% in each case) between the top and bottom deciles of the PRS distribution; for example, the OC risk was 6% by age 80 years for BRCA2 carriers at the 10th percentile of the OC PRS compared with 19% risk for those at the 90th percentile of PRS. Conclusions: BC and OC PRS are predictive of cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Incorporation of the PRS into risk prediction models has promise to better inform decisions on cancer risk management

    Germline polymorphisms in SIPA1 are associated with metastasis and other indicators of poor prognosis in breast cancer

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    INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that heritable genetic variation modulates metastatic efficiency. Our previous work using a mouse mammary tumor model has shown that metastatic efficiency is modulated by the GTPase-activating protein encoded by Sipa1 ('signal-induced proliferation-associated gene 1'). The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the human SIPA1 gene are associated with metastasis and other disease characteristics in breast cancer. METHOD: The study population (n = 300) consisted of randomly selected non-Hispanic Caucasian breast cancer patients identified from a larger population-based series. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Three previously described SNPs within SIPA1 (one within the promoter [-313G>A] and two exonic [545C>T and 2760G>A]) were characterized using SNP-specific PCR. RESULTS: The variant 2760G>A and the -313G>A allele were associated with lymph node involvement (P = 0.0062 and P = 0.0083, respectively), and the variant 545C>T was associated with estrogen receptor negative tumors (P = 0.0012) and with progesterone negative tumors (P = 0.0339). Associations were identified between haplotypes defined by the three SNPs and disease progression. Haplotype 3 defined by variants -313G>A and 2760G>A was associated with positive lymph node involvement (P = 0.0051), and haplotype 4 defined by variant 545C>T was associated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative status (P = 0.0053 and P = 0.0199, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our findings imply that SIPA1 germline polymorphisms are associated with aggressive disease behavior in the cohort examined. If these results hold true in other populations, then knowledge of SIPA1 SNP genotypes could potentially enhance current staging protocols

    Interaction of RNA polymerase II and the small RNA machinery affects heterochromatic silencing in Drosophila

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Heterochromatin is the tightly packaged dynamic region of the eukaryotic chromosome that plays a vital role in cellular processes such as mitosis and meiotic recombination. Recent experiments in <it>Schizosaccharomyces pombe </it>have revealed the structure of centromeric heterochromatin is affected in RNAi pathway mutants. It has also been shown in fission yeast that the heterochromatin barrier is traversed by RNA Pol II and that the passage of RNA Pol II through heterochromatin is important for heterochromatin structure. Thus, an intricate interaction between the RNAi machinery and RNA Pol II affects heterochromatin structure. However, the role of the RNAi machinery and RNA Pol II on the metazoan heterochromatin landscape is not known. This study analyses the interaction of the small RNA machinery and RNA Pol II on <it>Drosophila </it>heterochromatin structure.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The results in this paper show genetic and biochemical interaction between RNA Pol II (largest and second largest subunit) and small RNA silencing machinery components (<it>dcr-2, ago1, ago2, piwi, Lip [D], aub </it>and <it>hls</it>). Immunofluorescence analysis of polytene chromosomes from trans-heterozygotes of RNA Pol II and different mutations of the small RNA pathways show decreased H3K9me2 and mislocalization of Heterochromatin protein-1. A genetic analysis performed on these mutants showed a strong suppression of <it>white-mottled4h </it>position effect variegation. This was further corroborated by a western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, which showed decreased H3K9me2 in trans-heterozygote mutants compared to wild type or single heterozygotes. Co-immunoprecipitation performed using <it>Drosophila </it>embryo extracts showed the RNA Pol II largest subunit interacting with Dcr-2 and dAGO1. Co-localization performed on polytene chromosomes showed RNA Pol II and dAGO1 overlapping at some sites.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our experiments show a genetic and biochemical interaction between RNA Pol II (largest and second largest subunits) and the small RNA silencing machinery in <it>Drosophila</it>. The interaction has functional aspects in terms of determining H3K9me2 and HP-1 deposition at the chromocentric heterochromatin. Thus, RNA Pol II has an important role in establishing heterochromatin structure in <it>Drosophila</it>.</p