71 research outputs found

    Covariant mutually unbiased bases

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    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in even-prime power dimension covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.Comment: 44 pages, some remarks and references added in v

    Measurement uncertainty relations for position and momentum: Relative entropy formulation

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    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has recently led to general measurement uncertainty relations for quantum systems: incompatible observables can be measured jointly or in sequence only with some unavoidable approximation, which can be quantified in various ways. The relative entropy is the natural theoretical quantifier of the information loss when a `true' probability distribution is replaced by an approximating one. In this paper, we provide a lower bound for the amount of information that is lost by replacing the distributions of the sharp position and momentum observables, as they could be obtained with two separate experiments, by the marginals of any smeared joint measurement. The bound is obtained by introducing an entropic error function, and optimizing it over a suitable class of covariant approximate joint measurements. We fully exploit two cases of target observables: (1) nn-dimensional position and momentum vectors; (2) two components of position and momentum along different directions. In (1), we connect the quantum bound to the dimension nn; in (2), going from parallel to orthogonal directions, we show the transition from highly incompatible observables to compatible ones. For simplicity, we develop the theory only for Gaussian states and measurements.Comment: 33 page

    Learning Sets with Separating Kernels

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    We consider the problem of learning a set from random samples. We show how relevant geometric and topological properties of a set can be studied analytically using concepts from the theory of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. A new kind of reproducing kernel, that we call separating kernel, plays a crucial role in our study and is analyzed in detail. We prove a new analytic characterization of the support of a distribution, that naturally leads to a family of provably consistent regularized learning algorithms and we discuss the stability of these methods with respect to random sampling. Numerical experiments show that the approach is competitive, and often better, than other state of the art techniques.Comment: final versio

    Maximally incompatible quantum observables

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    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible

    Tasks and premises in quantum state determination

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    The purpose of quantum tomography is to determine an unknown quantum state from measurement outcome statistics. There are two obvious ways to generalize this setting. First, our task need not be the determination of any possible input state but only some input states, for instance pure states. Second, we may have some prior information, or premise, which guarantees that the input state belongs to some subset of states, for instance the set of states with rank less than half of the dimension of the Hilbert space. We investigate state determination under these two supplemental features, concentrating on the cases where the task and the premise are statements about the rank of the unknown state. We characterize the structure of quantum observables (POVMs) that are capable of fulfilling these type of determination tasks. After the general treatment we focus on the class of covariant phase space observables, thus providing physically relevant examples of observables both capable and incapable of performing these tasks. In this context, the effect of noise is discussed.Comment: minor changes in v

    Probing quantum state space: does one have to learn everything to learn something?

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    Determining the state of a quantum system is a consuming procedure. For this reason, whenever one is interested only in some particular property of a state, it would be desirable to design a measurement setup that reveals this property with as little effort as possible. Here we investigate whether, in order to successfully complete a given task of this kind, one needs an informationally complete measurement, or if something less demanding would suffice. The first alternative means that in order to complete the task, one needs a measurement which fully determines the state. We formulate the task as a membership problem related to a partitioning of the quantum state space and, in doing so, connect it to the geometry of the state space. For a general membership problem we prove various sufficient criteria that force informational completeness, and we explicitly treat several physically relevant examples. For the specific cases that do not require informational completeness, we also determine bounds on the minimal number of measurement outcomes needed to ensure success in the task.Comment: 23 pages, 4 figure

    Commutative POVMs and Fuzzy Observables

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    In this paper we review some properties of fuzzy observables, mainly as realized by commutative positive operator valued measures. In this context we discuss two representation theorems for commutative positive operator valued measures in terms of projection valued measures and describe, in some detail, the general notion of fuzzification. We also make some related observations on joint measurements.Comment: Contribution to the Pekka Lahti Festschrif

    Optimal covariant measurements: the case of a compact symmetry group and phase observables

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    We study various optimality criteria for quantum observables. Observables are represented as covariant positive operator valued measures and we consider the case when the symmetry group is compact. Phase observables are examined as an example
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