67 research outputs found

    Subclinical doses of dietary fumonisins and deoxynivalenol cause cecal microbiota dysbiosis in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens

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    Fusarium toxins are one of the most common contaminants in poultry diets. The co-occurrence of fumonisins (FUM) and deoxynivalenol (DON), even at a subclinical dose, negatively affects the growth performance, intestinal integrity and induce subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Loss of gut integrity can be expected to alter the intestinal microbiota’s composition. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of combined FUM and DON on the cecal microbiome profile and predicted metabolic functions and a short chain fatty acid profile in broilers challenged with Clostridium perfringens. A total of 240 1 day-old chicks were randomly assigned to two treatments: a control diet and the control diet with 3 mg/kg FUM + 4 mg/kg DON each with eight replications. All the birds were received cocci vaccine at d0. All birds in both treatment groups were challenged with C. perfringens 1 × 108 CFU via feed on d 19 and 20 to achieve 5% mortality. On d 35, the FUM and DON contaminated diet numerically (P = 0.06) decreased the body weight gain (BWG) by 84 g compared to the control group. The bacterial compositions of the cecal contents were analyzed by sequencing the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Overall, microbial richness and diversity increased (P < 0.02) during the studied period (d 21–35). Cecal contents of birds in the FUM + DON group had greater (P < 0.05) microbial evenness and diversity (Shannon index) compared to the control group. FUM + DON exposure decreased (P = 0.001) the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the cecal content, compared to the control group. The combined FUM + DON significantly increased the relative abundance of the Defluviitaleaceae and Lachnospiraceae families (P < 0.05) but decreased the abundances of the Moraxellaceae and Streptococcaceae (P < 0.05) compared to the control group birds. At the genus level, FUM + DON exposure decreased (P < 0.05) Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas abundance and had a tendency (P = 0.08) to decrease Thermincola abundance compared to the control group. In the ileum, no NE-specific microscopic abnormalities were found; however, the tip of the ileal villi were compromised. The present findings showed that dietary FUM and DON contamination, even at subclinical levels, altered cecal microbial composition, dysregulated intestinal functions, and impaired the gut immune response, potentially predisposing the birds to necrotic enteritis

    Association between essential tremor and blood lead concentration

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    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant that causes tremor and cerebellar damage. Essential tremor (ET) is a highly prevalent neurologic disease associated with cerebellar involvement. Although environmental toxicants may play a role in ET etiology and their identification is a critical step in disease prevention, these toxicants have received little attention. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that ET is associated with lead exposure. Therefore, blood lead (BPb) concentrations were measured and a lifetime occupational history was assessed in ET patients and in controls. We frequency matched 100 ET patients and 143 controls on age, sex, and ethnicity. BPb concentrations were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A lifetime occupational history was reviewed by an industrial hygienist. BPb concentrations were higher in ET patients than in controls (mean ± SD, 3.3 ± 2.4 and 2.6 ± 1.6 µg/dL, respectively; median, 2.7 and 2.3 µg/dL; p = 0.038). In a logistic regression model, BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis [control vs. ET patient, odds ratio (OR) per unit increase = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.39; p = 0.007]. BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis (OR per unit increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37; p = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence of lifetime occupational lead exposure was similar in ET patients and controls. We report an association between BPb concentration and ET. Determining whether this association is due to increased exposure to lead or a difference in lead kinetics in ET patients requires further investigation

    Period and period change measurements for 143 SuperWASP eclipsing binary candidates near the short-period limit and discovery of a doubly eclipsing quadruple system

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    Building on previous work, a new search of the SuperWASP archive was carried out to identify eclipsing binary systems near the short-period limit. 143 candidate objects were detected with orbital periods between 16 000 and 20 000 s, of which 97 are new discoveries. Period changes significant at 1σ or more were detected in 74 of these objects, and in 38 the changes were significant at 3σ or more. The significant period changes observed followed an approximately normal distribution with a half-width at half-maximum of ~0.1 s yr-1. There was no apparent relationship between period length and magnitude or direction of period change. Amongst several interesting individual objects studied, 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5 is presented as a new doubly eclipsing quadruple system, consisting of a contact binary with a 19 674.575 s period and an Algol-type binary with a 112 799.109 s period, separated by 66.1 AU, being the sixth known system of this type

    Association of Accelerometry-Measured Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Events in Mobility-Limited Older Adults: The LIFE (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders) Study.

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    BACKGROUND:Data are sparse regarding the value of physical activity (PA) surveillance among older adults-particularly among those with mobility limitations. The objective of this study was to examine longitudinal associations between objectively measured daily PA and the incidence of cardiovascular events among older adults in the LIFE (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders) study. METHODS AND RESULTS:Cardiovascular events were adjudicated based on medical records review, and cardiovascular risk factors were controlled for in the analysis. Home-based activity data were collected by hip-worn accelerometers at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months postrandomization to either a physical activity or health education intervention. LIFE study participants (n=1590; age 78.9±5.2 [SD] years; 67.2% women) at baseline had an 11% lower incidence of experiencing a subsequent cardiovascular event per 500 steps taken per day based on activity data (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.96; P=0.001). At baseline, every 30 minutes spent performing activities ≥500 counts per minute (hazard ratio, 0.75; confidence interval, 0.65-0.89 [P=0.001]) were also associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. Throughout follow-up (6, 12, and 24 months), both the number of steps per day (per 500 steps; hazard ratio, 0.90, confidence interval, 0.85-0.96 [P=0.001]) and duration of activity ≥500 counts per minute (per 30 minutes; hazard ratio, 0.76; confidence interval, 0.63-0.90 [P=0.002]) were significantly associated with lower cardiovascular event rates. CONCLUSIONS:Objective measurements of physical activity via accelerometry were associated with cardiovascular events among older adults with limited mobility (summary score >10 on the Short Physical Performance Battery) both using baseline and longitudinal data. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01072500

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Infection in a Long-Distance Migrant Shorebird under Migratory and Non-Migratory States

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    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers—before the onset of clinical disease—than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of migratory take-off, this may favor the spread of HPAIV H5N1 by migratory birds over long distances

    Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

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    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range

    European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD.

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    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. METHODS: The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. RESULTS: Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? CONCLUSIONS: ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group

    Cloning, annotation and developmental expression of the chicken intestinal MUC2 gene

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    Intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) encodes a heavily glycosylated, gel-forming mucin, which creates an important protective mucosal layer along the gastrointestinal tract in humans and other species. This first line of defense guards against attacks from microorganisms and is integral to the innate immune system. As a first step towards characterizing the innate immune response of MUC2 in different species, we report the cloning of a full-length, 11,359 bp chicken MUC2cDNA, and describe the genomic organization and functional annotation of this complex, 74.5 kb locus. MUC2 contains 64 exons and demonstrates distinct spatiotemporal expression profiles throughout development in the gastrointestinal tract; expression increases with gestational age and from anterior to posterior along the gut. The chicken protein has a similar domain organization as the human orthologue, with a signal peptide and several von Willebrand domains in the N-terminus and the characteristic cystine knot at the C-terminus. The PTS domain of the chicken MUC2 protein spans ~1600 amino acids and is interspersed with four CysD motifs. However, the PTS domain in the chicken diverges significantly from the human orthologue; although the chicken domain is shorter, the repetitive unit is 69 amino acids in length, which is three times longer than the human. The amino acid composition shows very little similarity to the human motif, which potentially contributes to differences in the innate immune response between species, as glycosylation across this rapidly evolving domain provides much of the musical barrier. Future studies of the function of MUC2 in the innate immune response system in chicken could provide an important model organism to increase our understanding of the biological significance of MUC2 in host defense and highlight the potential of the chicken for creating new immune-based therapies
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