953 research outputs found

    The Impact of the Crisis on Employment and the Role of Labour Market Institutions

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    The paper takes a comparative perspective on the labour market impact on G20 and EU countries of the financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. It starts from the observation that the decline in employment and rise in unemployment in relation to output or GDP reductions varies significantly across countries. It examines the impacts from an institutional perspective taking into account different channels of external, internal and wage flexibility determined by both the institutional arrangements in place before the crisis and discretionary reforms implemented during the crisis. Emphasis is placed on the role of permanent and temporary jobs, working time adjustment, wage flexibility and active and passive labour market policies. The paper shows that, at least for the time being, unemployment increases have been contained in countries with comparatively strong internal flexibility. At the same time, however, it appears that the crisis has – at least in some cases – contributed to a further dualization of labour markets given that risks are allocated unequally across types of employment.crisis, employment, EPL, institutions, dual labour markets, flexibility

    The Envelope Kinematics and a Possible Disk Around the Class 0 Protostar within BHR7

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    We present a characterization of the protostar embedded within the BHR7 dark cloud, based on both photometric measurements from the near-infrared to millimeter and interferometric continuum and molecular line observations at millimeter wavelengths. We find that this protostar is a Class 0 system, the youngest class of protostars, measuring its bolometric temperature to be 50.5~K, with a bolometric luminosity of 9.3~L_{\odot}. The near-infrared and \textit{Spitzer} imaging show a prominent dark lane from dust extinction separating clear bipolar outflow cavities. Observations of 13^{13}CO (J=21J=2\rightarrow1), C18^{18}O (J=21J=2\rightarrow1), and other molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) exhibit a clear rotation signature on scales <<1300~AU. The rotation can be traced to an inner radius of \sim170~AU and the rotation curve is consistent with an R1^{-1} profile, implying that angular momentum is being conserved. Observations of the 1.3~mm dust continuum with the SMA reveal a resolved continuum source, extended in the direction of the dark lane, orthogonal to the outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum indicates a radius of \sim100~AU for the continuum source at the assumed distance of 400~pc. The visibility amplitude profile of the continuum emission cannot be reproduced by an envelope alone and needs a compact component. Thus, we posit that the resolved continuum source could be tracing a Keplerian disk in this very young system. If we assume that the continuum radius traces a Keplerian disk (R\sim120~AU) the observed rotation profile is consistent with a protostar mass of 1.0~MM_{\odot}.Comment: 36 pages; 11 Figures, 2 Tables; Accepted to Ap

    Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

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    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods