22 research outputs found

    Understanding the impact of privacy concerns and trust on social networking sites: Analysing user intentions towards willingness to share digital identities

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    Participation in social networking sites (SNS) has dramatically increased in recent years. SNS focus on building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. This study examines the experiences of SNS users, and explores how the depth of their experience and knowledge of the Internet, trust and privacy concerns impact upon their individual willingness to share information about their own identity with other users on social networking websites. An acceptance model is proposed that incorporates cognitive, as well as affective, attitudes as primary influencing factors on user attitudes and behaviour which, in turn, are driven by underlying beliefs, perceived levels of privacy and trust, attitudinal experiences and knowledge, as well as a willingness to share. The proposed conceptual model for this study is derived from the literature review and Theory of Planned Behaviour. This model explains how people experience different levels of motivation about sharing knowledge and seeking information from other members which, in turn, leads to a divergence in both intentions and behaviours within virtual communities. The model shows excellent measurement properties and establishes two distinct constructs—specifically, the need for perceived levels of privacy, and the need for established levels of trust within SNS. This study is based on quantitative methodology and uses a structural equation model to test the construction of the model and its hypothesis. The data for this study were collected from a Facebook forum, with a sample size of 155 SNS users. The main theoretical contribution of this study is to provide greater understanding and new insights into privacy concerns and trust, in so far as these factors impact upon SNS users‘ willingness to readily share information regarding their digital identities. Secondly, this study will enrich the existing literature regarding the inter-relationship between the extent of SNS users‘ length and depth of experience as Internet users, as this impact upon their willingness to share identity-based information

    Do social networking sites build and maintain social capital online in rural communities?

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    Social capital (SC) is a cornerstone of rural communities but is not well understood in terms of how Social Networking Sites (SNS) can be used to build and maintain SC online. There are limited studies which have attempted to measure SC online and its two distinct dimensions – bonding and bridging SC. The main objectives of this paper are to: (i) confirm that building and maintaining of SC online can be measured reliably and validly as two factors of bonding and bridging SC, and (ii) to determine to what extent the use of SNS facilitates building and maintaining bonding and bridging SC online when rural households have broadband connectivity. This study used a large-scale survey to collect quantitative data in the Western Downs Region of Queensland, Australia regarding households’ adoption and use of broadband Internet including use of SNS and their contribution to building and maintaining bonding and bridging SC online in rural communities. This study confirmed that SC online can be reliably and validly measured as a first order two-factor hierarchical model providing further support for the findings of previous empirical studies. Evaluating the association between SNS use and building and maintaining bonding and bridging SC online in rural communities showed that Heavy and Light users of SNS in rural communities are more likely to have higher levels of bonding and bridging SC online than Non-users of SNS. The findings also suggest that higher levels of SNS use are more effective in building and maintaining bridging SC online than bonding SC online. This suggests that SNS usages may be able to play an important role in building and maintaining SC and improving social connectivity both within rural communities such as WDR and more widely with other communities regardless of geographical location. This is despite the tyranny of distance and poor telecommunications which has historically been a communication barrier for rural communities

    A dosemetric and radiobiological impact of VMAT and 3DCRT on lumbosacral plexuses, an underestimated organ at risk in cervical cancer patients

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    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dosimetric and radiobiological difference between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in organ at risk (OAR) lumbosacral plexus (LSP) in cervical cancer patients. Materials and methods: 30 patients of cervical cancer who were treated using 3DCRT or VMAT along with chemotherapy followed by brachytherapy were enrolled. LSP was delineated retrospectively. Dosimetric and radiobiological difference was evaluated. Patients were followed for radiation induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP). Results: Median follow-up was 12 months (3–16 months). 53.3% of patients were treated by 3DCRT and 46.7% by VMAT. The mean (±SD) LSP volume: 119.03 ± 15 cm3. The mean volume percentages (%) of the LSP: V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, V50, V55, and V60 were 100%, 99.8%, 99.2%, 94.3%, 84.03%, 59.7%, 0%, 0%, respectively. All patients received doses to the LSP in excess of 50 Gy, one patient received 55 Gy. A statistically significant difference was observed in the median value of V20, V30, V40, V50, D50, P2, P4, P7, P8, P9, and P10 across two different techniques of radiotherapy — VMAT and 3DCRT. None of the patients presented with RILSP. NTCP value was less in VMAT plans compared to 3DCRT, which is also statistically significant. Conclusion: RILSP is a rare and often refractory complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Advance radiotherapy technique with proper OAR delineation and constraint can prevent the occurrence of RILSP. VMAT has potential benefits for the probability of dose reduction in LSP. Further studies are required focusing on dose distribution in LSP–OAR and radiotherapy modality

    Physics Potential of the ICAL detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

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    The upcoming 50 kt magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is designed to study the atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos separately over a wide range of energies and path lengths. The primary focus of this experiment is to explore the Earth matter effects by observing the energy and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrinos in the multi-GeV range. This study will be crucial to address some of the outstanding issues in neutrino oscillation physics, including the fundamental issue of neutrino mass hierarchy. In this document, we present the physics potential of the detector as obtained from realistic detector simulations. We describe the simulation framework, the neutrino interactions in the detector, and the expected response of the detector to particles traversing it. The ICAL detector can determine the energy and direction of the muons to a high precision, and in addition, its sensitivity to multi-GeV hadrons increases its physics reach substantially. Its charge identification capability, and hence its ability to distinguish neutrinos from antineutrinos, makes it an efficient detector for determining the neutrino mass hierarchy. In this report, we outline the analyses carried out for the determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and precision measurements of atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters at ICAL, and give the expected physics reach of the detector with 10 years of runtime. We also explore the potential of ICAL for probing new physics scenarios like CPT violation and the presence of magnetic monopoles.Comment: 139 pages, Physics White Paper of the ICAL (INO) Collaboration, Contents identical with the version published in Pramana - J. Physic

    Constructing robust digital identity infrastructure for future networked society

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    Identity fraud has become one of major concerns for broad communities. The new information era needs a new digital identity infrastructure to support next generation Internet. This article suggests a hierarchical structure for digital identities. We define and classify all digital identities into three broad categories: Object, People and Organization. This paper is the first to systematically address the classification of digital identities. More and more individuals and communities heavily rely on the network. Many countries are trying their own digital identity initiatives, like E-passport, national smart card, etc. This article intends to initiate a discussion on a universal digital identity infrastructure for our future. We believe that in the near future all paper-based identities will be replaced by digital identities. A robust digital identity infrastructure will take a vital role in the future information age

    The Supply and Use of Broadband in Rural Australia: An Explanatory Case Study of the Western Downs Region

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    This research seeks to provide an understanding of broadband infrastructure supply and its relationship with household broadband use and satisfaction in rural Australia through an explanatory case study of the Western Downs Region (WDR). The Broadband Ecosystem provided a comprehensive framework for examining broadband infrastructure supply and household use and satisfaction with broadband services. Publicly available data was used to map the coverage of broadband access technologies in WDR. A large scale survey assessed household use and satisfaction with broadband services available in WDR. Our findings indicate that rural regions such as WDR are highly reliant on wireless broadband which is more variable in reliability and less affordable comparative to wired broadband. Our findings also indicate that household dissatisfaction with wireless broadband services is particularly evident in remote and outer regional areas. This suggests that the lack of reliable and affordable wireless broadband services with adequate data quotas are a real barrier to rural communities such as the WDR actively participating in a digital future. This study provided a number of important contributions. The broadband ecosystem provided a comprehensive framework for understanding the complex problem of broadband access in rural Australia by analysing two units of analysis, broadband infrastructure (supply) and broadband use and satisfaction (demand). Broadband infrastructure is an important and under-researched area in information systems. Future government policy needs to ensure that access to reliable and high speed broadband services is part of its universal service obligation so that the current shortcomings in broadband infrastructure in rural Australia will be prioritised and addressed. We believe this will require a commitment from future Governments to facilitate both public and private investment in broadband infrastructure in rural Australia

    Acute oral toxicity study of turmeric based herbal product in Sprague Dawley rats

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    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acute oral toxicity study of the Turmeric based herbal product in the sprague dawley rats.  Acute oral toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours. The LD50 value, defined as the statistically derived dose that, when administered in an acute toxicity test, is expected to cause death in 50% of the treated animals in a given period, is currently the basis for toxicologic classification of chemicals. The test item, Turmeric based herbal product was evaluated for Acute Oral Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats as per the OECD Guideline No. 425 -Acute Oral Toxicity - Up-and-Down Procedure. Based on the results, it may be concluded that the LD50 of test item is >5000 mg/kg body weight as per OECD Guideline No. 425-Acute Oral Toxicity-Up-and-Down Procedure