19 research outputs found

    Measuring the impact of critical incidents on brand personality

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    To evaluate how occurring critical incidents change customer perceptions of brand personality, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,132 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different critical incidents (corruption vs. product failure). Brand personality perceptions before and after these negative incidents are collected using the measurement model of Geuens, Weijters and De Wulf (2009). The measurement model is examined and the group specific factor scores are estimated. Based on these factor scores, latent means are calculated and hence reactions (personality shifts) are evaluated. The findings indicate that brand personality dimensions are not equally affected. Moreover, the results demonstrate that both brand equity and the business relationship before crisis moderate the effect of distinct critical incidents

    Hydrogen Production and Carbon Capture by Gas‐Phase Methane Pyrolysis: A Feasibility Study

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    Using natural gas and sustainable biogas as feed, high-temperature pyrolysis represents a potential technology for large-scale hydrogen production and simultaneous carbon capture. Further utilization of solid carbon accruing during the process (i. e., in battery industry or for metallurgy) increases the process\u27s economic chances. This study demonstrated the feasibility of gas-phase methane pyrolysis for hydrogen production and carbon capture in an electrically heated high-temperature reactor operated between 1200 and 1600 °C under industrially relevant conditions. While hydrogen addition controlled methane conversion and suppressed the formation of undesired byproducts, an increasing residence time decreased the amount of byproducts and benefited high hydrogen yields. A temperature of 1400 °C ensured almost full methane conversion, moderate byproduct formation, and high hydrogen yield. A reaction flow analysis of the gas-phase kinetics revealed acetylene, ethylene, and benzene as the main intermediate products and precursors of carbon formation

    Opportunities for Gas-Phase Science at Short-Wavelength Free-Electron Lasers with Undulator-Based Polarization Control

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    Free-electron lasers (FELs) are the world's most brilliant light sources with rapidly evolving technological capabilities in terms of ultrabright and ultrashort pulses over a large range of accessible photon energies. Their revolutionary and innovative developments have opened new fields of science regarding nonlinear light-matter interaction, the investigation of ultrafast processes from specific observer sites, and approaches to imaging matter with atomic resolution. A core aspect of FEL science is the study of isolated and prototypical systems in the gas phase with the possibility of addressing well-defined electronic transitions or particular atomic sites in molecules. Notably for polarization-controlled short-wavelength FELs, the gas phase offers new avenues for investigations of nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena in spin orientated systems, for decoding the function of the chiral building blocks of life as well as steering reactions and particle emission dynamics in otherwise inaccessible ways. This roadmap comprises descriptions of technological capabilities of facilities worldwide, innovative diagnostics and instrumentation, as well as recent scientific highlights, novel methodology and mathematical modeling. The experimental and theoretical landscape of using polarization controllable FELs for dichroic light-matter interaction in the gas phase will be discussed and comprehensively outlined to stimulate and strengthen global collaborative efforts of all disciplines

    Additive Pressures of Elevated Sea Surface Temperatures and Herbicides on Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera

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    Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F′m), while elevated temperatures (>30°C, only 2°C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced Fv/Fm and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥1 µg L−1). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures

    The impact of critical incidents on marketing intangibles

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    Die Dissertation befasst sich mit den Folgen negativer kritischer Ereignisse und gibt Hinweise, was Manager vor und nach dem Ereignis tun könnten, um potentiell negative Effekte zu minimieren. Während sich die ersten zwei Aufsätze mit der Wirkung kritischer Ereignisse aus Sicht der Konsumenten befassen, widmen sich die Aufsätze 3 und 4 der Shareholder-Perspektive. Aufsatz 1 untersucht die Wahrnehmungsveränderungen in Folge verschiedener Ereignisse mit Hilfe des Konzepts der Markenpersönlichkeit. Die Ergebnisse des Online-Experimentes implizieren, dass die negative Wirkung von der Markenstärke, der Geschäftsbeziehung vor bzw. während des Vorfalls und der Art des Ereignisses abhängt. Aufsatz 2 analysiert, ob die Effekte auch mit Hilfe des Konzepts des kundenbasierten Markenwerts bestätigt und erweitert werden können. Zu diesem Zweck werden die Reaktionen nach Bekanntwerden derselben kritischen Ereignisse für die Markenwertdimension „Perceived quality“, „Perceived value“, „Brand personality“, „Organizational associations“, und „Loyalty“ quantifiziert. In Übereinstimmung mit den in Aufsatz 1 gewonnenen Erkenntnissen deuten die Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass sowohl ein hoher Markenwert und das anhaltende persönliche Produkterlebnis während eines kritischen Ereignisses den negativen Effekt mindert, als auch eine zwischen tatsächlichen und potentiellen Kunden differenzierende Kommunikationsstrategie im Nachgang sinnvoll sein könnte. Die Aufsätze 3 und 4 untersuchen auf Basis einer „Event study“ den Zusammenhang zwischen der Veröffentlichung von „Corporate Reputation-Rankings“ des Manager Magazins und dem Shareholder Value. Die gefundenen Ankündigungseffekte weisen darauf hin, dass, über die gezeigte Verbindung zwischen Reputation und Shareholder Value, die in Folge kritischer negativer Ereignisse resultierende Reputationsänderung durch Investoren berücksichtigt wird.The doctoral dissertation analyzes effects of negative critical incidents and points out, what manager could do before and after an incident in order to minimize possible negative impacts. While the first two essays take a closer look at effects of critical incidents from the consumer’s point of view, the essays 3 and 4 deal with the shareholder perspective. Essay 1 examines perceptional changes in consequence of various incidents using the concept of brand personality. The results of the online experiment imply that the negative impact depends on brand strength, type of event and business relation before respectively during the incident. Essay 2 analyzes whether or not effects can be confirmed and extended using the concept of customer based brand equity. For this purpose, reactions of respondents are measured after getting exposed to the same critical incidents as in the previous essay. The reactions are quantified for brand equity dimensions such as perceived quality, perceived value, brand personality, organizational associations and loyalty. The results are in line with findings of Essay 1. They indicate, on the one hand, that high brand equity and persistent product experience during crisis reduce negative effects and, on the other hand, that a communication strategy which differs between actual and potential customers could be favorable after the incident. Using event study methodology, the Essays 3 and 4 examine the linkage between publications of corporate reputation rankings of the Manager Magazin and shareholder value. The existence of negative announcement effects indicates that investors consider a reputational loss in consequence of negative critical incidents via the observed linkage between reputation and share prices

    Linking corporate reputation and shareholder value using the publication of reputation rankings

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    Good corporate reputation is seen as one of the most valuable assets. It is believed to cause a multitude of favorable impacts within different stakeholder groups. As a consequence, a multitude of studies analyzed the relationship between corporate reputation and financial performance. However, the most of them raised the question of causation due to their methodology. In order to isolate the impact of corporate reputation on financial performance, some authors had conducted event studies, but without any success. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive theoretical background, why reputation has to affect financial performance. According to this theory, two event studies are conducted to analyze the impact of publishing reputation rankings of the German Manager Magazine from 1998 to 2008 on share prices. As expected, we find positive or negative announcement effects regarding upgraded or respectively downgraded companies. Consequently, investors gain new information from the published rankings (increase or decrease in reputation) to adjust share prices

    Oxidative Coupling of Methane over Pt/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at High Temperature: Multiscale Modeling of the Catalytic Monolith

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    At high temperatures, the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is an attractive approach for catalytic conversion of methane into value-added chemicals. Experiments with a Pt/Al2O3-coated catalytic honeycomb monolith were conducted with varying CH4/O2 ratios, N2 dilution at atmospheric pressure, and very short contact times. The reactor was modeled by a multiscale approach using a parabolic two-dimensional flow field description in the monolithic channels coupled with a heat balance of the monolithic structure, and multistep surface reaction mechanisms as well as elementary-step, gas phase reaction mechanisms. The contribution of heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions, both of which are important for the optimization of C2 products, is investigated using a combination of experimental and computational methods. The oxidation of methane, which takes place over the platinum catalyst, causes the adiabatic temperature increase required for the generation of CH3 radicals in the gas phase, which are essential for the formation of C2 species. Lower CH4/O2 ratios result in higher C2 selectivity. However, the presence of OH radicals at high temperatures facilitates subsequent conversion of C2H2 at a CH4/O2 ratio of 1.4. Thereby, C2 species selectivity of 7% was achieved at CH4/O2 ratio of 1.6, with 35% N2 dilution

    Oxidative Coupling of Methane over Pt/Al2O3 at High Temperature: Multiscale Modeling of the Catalytic Monolith

    No full text
    At high temperatures, the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is an attractive approach for catalytic conversion of methane into value-added chemicals. Experiments with a Pt/Al2O3-coated catalytic honeycomb monolith were conducted with varying CH4/O2 ratios, N2 dilution at atmospheric pressure, and very short contact times. The reactor was modeled by a multiscale approach using a parabolic two-dimensional flow field description in the monolithic channels coupled with a heat balance of the monolithic structure, and multistep surface reaction mechanisms as well as elementary-step, gas phase reaction mechanisms. The contribution of heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions, both of which are important for the optimization of C2 products, is investigated using a combination of experimental and computational methods. The oxidation of methane, which takes place over the platinum catalyst, causes the adiabatic temperature increase required for the generation of CH3 radicals in the gas phase, which are essential for the formation of C2 species. Lower CH4/O2 ratios result in higher C2 selectivity. However, the presence of OH radicals at high temperatures facilitates subsequent conversion of C2H2 at a CH4/O2 ratio of 1.4. Thereby, C2 species selectivity of 7% was achieved at CH4/O2 ratio of 1.6, with 35% N2 dilution
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