5,018 research outputs found

    EAGLE 2006 – Multi-purpose, multi-angle and multi-sensor in-situ and airborne campaigns over grassland and forest

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    EAGLE2006 - an intensive field campaign - was carried out in the Netherlands from the 8th until the 18th of June 2006. Several airborne sensors - an optical imaging sensor, an imaging microwave radiometer, and a flux airplane – were used and extensive ground measurements were conducted over one grassland (Cabauw) site and two forest sites (Loobos & Speulderbos) in the central part of the Netherlands, in addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sensor satellite data. The data set is both unique and urgently needed for the development and validation of models and inversion algorithms for quantitative surface parameter estimation and process studies. EAGLE2006 was led by the Department of Water Resources of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation and originated from the combination of a number of initiatives coming under different funding. The objectives of the EAGLE2006 campaign were closely related to the objectives of other ESA Campaigns (SPARC2004, Sen2Flex2005 and especially AGRISAR2006). However, one important objective of the campaign is to build up a data base for the investigation and validation of the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters, obtained at different radar frequencies (X-, C- and L-Band) and at hyperspectral optical and thermal bands acquired over vegetated fields (forest and grassland). As such, all activities were related to algorithm development for future satellite missions such as Sentinels and for satellite validations for MERIS, MODIS as well as AATSR and ASTER thermal data validation, with activities also related to the ASAR sensor on board ESA’s Envisat platform and those on EPS/MetOp and SMOS. Most of the activities in the campaign are highly relevant for the EU GEMS EAGLE project, but also issues related to retrieval of biophysical parameters from MERIS and MODIS as well as AATSR and ASTER data were of particular relevance to the NWO-SRON EcoRTM project, while scaling issues and complementary between these (covering only local sites) and global sensors such as MERIS/SEVIRI, EPS/MetOP and SMOS were also key elements for the SMOS cal/val project and the ESA-MOST DRAGON programme. This contribution describes the mission objectives and provides an overview of the airborne and field campaigns

    Lorentz violation in neutron and allowed nuclear beta decay

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    We explore the possibility that the weak interaction violates Lorentz, and in particular rotational, invariance in neutron and allowed nuclear beta decay. A broad class of Lorentz-violating effects is considered, in which the standard propagator of the W-boson acquires an additional Lorentz-violating tensor. The general decay rate for allowed beta decay that incorporates such a modified propagator is derived. The resulting Lorentz-violating signals are discussed for the different types of beta-decay transitions, Fermi, Gamow-Teller, and mixed. We study the implications of our formalism for dedicated beta-decay experiments. We give a short overview of the few relevant experiments that have been performed or are ongoing.Comment: 23 pages; added reference

    Limits on Lorentz violation in neutral-Kaon decay

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    The KLOE collaboration recently reported bounds on the directional dependence of the lifetime of the short-lived neutral kaon K_S with respect to the cosmic microwave background dipole anisotropy. We interpret their results in a general framework developed to probe Lorentz violation in the weak interaction. In this approach a Lorentz-violating tensor \chi_{\mu\nu} is added to the standard propagator of the W boson. We derive the K_S decay rate in a naive tree-level model and calculate the asymmetry for the lifetime. By using the KLOE data the real vector part of \chi_{\mu\nu} is found to be smaller than 10^-2. We briefly discuss the theoretical challenges concerning nonleptonic decays.Comment: Presented at the Sixth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, Bloomington, Indiana, June 17-21, 2013

    Prospect of creating a composite fermi/bose superfluid

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    We show that composite fermi/bose superfluids can be created in cold-atom traps by employing a Feshbach resonance or coherent photoassociation. The bosonic molecular condensate created in this way implies a new fermion pairing mechanism associated with the exchange of fermion pairs between the molecular condensate and an atomic fermion superfluid. We predict macroscopically coherent, Josephson-like oscillations of the atomic and molecular populations in response to a sudden change of the molecular energy, and suggest that these oscillations will provide an experimental signature of the pairing.Comment: Rejected by PR

    Nuclear beta decay with Lorentz violation

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    We consider the possibility of Lorentz-invariance violation in weak-decay processes. We present a general approach that entails modifying the W-boson propagator by adding a Lorentz-violating tensor to it. We describe the effects of Lorentz violation on nuclear beta decay in this scenario. In particular we show the expression for a first-forbidden transition with a spin change of two. Using data from an old experiment on the rotational invariance of yttrium-90, we derive several bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters of the order of 10^(-6)-10^(-8).Comment: 4 pages; presented at the Sixth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, Bloomington, Indiana, June 17-21, 2013; Added reference

    Symmetry violations in nuclear and neutron β\beta decay

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    The role of β\beta decay as a low-energy probe of physics beyond the Standard Model is reviewed. Traditional searches for deviations from the Standard Model structure of the weak interaction in β\beta decay are discussed in the light of constraints from the LHC and the neutrino mass. Limits on the violation of time-reversal symmetry in β\beta decay are compared to the strong constraints from electric dipole moments. Novel searches for Lorentz symmetry breaking in the weak interaction in β\beta decay are also included, where we discuss the unique sensitivity of β\beta decay to test Lorentz invariance. We end with a roadmap for future β\beta-decay experiments.Comment: Accepted for publication in Rev. Mod. Phys. 86 pages, 13 figure

    Testing Lorentz invariance in orbital electron capture

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    Searches for Lorentz violation were recently extended to the weak sector, in particular neutron and nuclear β\beta decay [1]. From experiments on forbidden β\beta-decay transitions strong limits in the range of 10610^{-6}-10810^{-8} were obtained on Lorentz-violating components of the WW-boson propagator [2]. In order to improve on these limits strong sources have to be considered. In this Brief Report we study isotopes that undergo orbital electron capture and allow experiments at high decay rates and low dose. We derive the expressions for the Lorentz-violating differential decay rate and discuss the options for competitive experiments and their required precision.Comment: accepted for publication as a Brief Report in Physical Review

    Strategies for Improving Semi-automated Topic Classification of Media and Parliamentary documents

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    Since 1995 the techniques and capacities to store new electronic data and to make it available to many persons have become a common good. As of then, different organizations, such as research institutes, universities, libraries, and private companies (Google) started to scan older documents and make them electronically available as well. This has generated a lot of new research opportunities for all kinds of academic disciplines. The use of software to analyze large datasets has become an important part of doing research in the social sciences. Most academics rely on human coded datasets, both in qualitative and quantitative research. However, with the increasing amount of datasets and the complexity of the questions scholars pose to the datasets, the quest for more efficient and effective methods is now on the agenda. One of the most common techniques of content analysis is the Boolean key-word search method. To find certain topics in a dataset, the researcher creates first a list of keywords, added with certain parameters (AND, OR etc.). All keys are usually grouped in families and the entire list of keys and groups is called the ontology. Then the keywords are searched in the dataset, retrieving all documents containing the specified keywords. The online newspaper dataset, LexisNexis, provides the user with such a Boolean search method. However, the Boolean key-word search is not always satisfying in terms of reliability and validity. For that reason social scientists rely on hand-coding. Two projects that do so are the congressional bills project (www.congressionalbills.org ) and the policy agenda-setting project (see www.policyagendas.org ). They developed a topic code book and coded various different sources, such as, the state of the union speeches, bills, newspaper articles etcetera. The continuous improving automated coding techniques, and the increasing number of agenda setting projects (in especially European countries), however, has made the use of automated coding software a feasible option and also a necessity

    Retrieval of canopy component temperatures through Bayesian inversion of directional thermal measurements

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    Evapotranspiration is usually estimated in remote sensing from single temperature value representing both soil and vegetation. This surface temperature is an aggregate over multiple canopy components. The temperature of the individual components can differ significantly, introducing errors in the evapotranspiration estimations. The temperature aggregate has a high level of directionality. An inversion method is presented in this paper to retrieve four canopy component temperatures from directional brightness temperatures. The Bayesian method uses both a priori information and sensor characteristics to solve the ill-posed inversion problem. The method is tested using two case studies: 1) a sensitivity analysis, using a large forward simulated dataset, and 2) in a reality study, using two datasets of two field campaigns. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the Bayesian approach is able to retrieve the four component temperatures from directional brightness temperatures with good success rates using multi-directional sensors (Srspectra˜0.3, Srgonio˜0.3, and SrAATSR˜0.5), and no improvement using mono-angular sensors (Sr˜1). The results of the experimental study show that the approach gives good results for high LAI values (RMSEgrass=0.50 K, RMSEwheat=0.29 K, RMSEsugar beet=0.75 K, RMSEbarley=0.67 K); but for low LAI values the results were unsatisfactory (RMSEyoung maize=2.85 K). This discrepancy was found to originate from the presence of the metallic construction of the setup. As these disturbances, were only present for two crops and were not present in the sensitivity analysis, which had a low LAI, it is concluded that using masked thermal images will eliminate this discrepanc
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