170 research outputs found

    PROPOSED TOBACCO QUOTA BUYOUT LEGISLATION: EFFECTS ON TENNESSEE TOBACCO FARMS

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    Interest in a tobacco quota buyout is at an all time high with several tobacco quota buyout and transition bills before Congress. This paper reviews major elements of buyout proposals and estimates the economic impacts of proposed buyout legislation on four representative Tennessee tobacco farms.Agricultural and Food Policy,

    Post-Buyout Burley Tobacco Production and Trends in the Traditional Burley Regions of Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia

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    The 2004 federal tobacco buyout ended the longstanding tobacco quota and price support programs, and also eliminated all tobacco reporting requirements. Producers are adjusting to the free market with scant information. The 2006 Burley Tobacco Survey provides an initial glimpse of post-buyout burley tobacco production, trends, challenges, and expectations.tobacco, quota buyout, farmer survey, tobacco production, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Q12, Q18,

    A case study analysis of household recycling behavior in and willingness to pay for a drop-off recycling program

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    As rural counties and communities with low population densities struggle to meet solid waste disposal needs, drop-off recycling has become a popular (and even mandated, in many cases) option for reducing solid waste for disposal. Yet, little information exists regarding expected participation, generation, and diversion rates. In addition, estimates of individual willingness to pay for drop-off recycling are needed to accurately assess the economic feasibility of a recycling program. This study utilized an in-depth survey of the Williamson County, Tennessee, drop-off recycling program to obtain information about rural/suburban drop-off recycling participation, generation, diversion, and willingness to pay. Four hundred eighty-six surveys were elicited from users of convenience centers and drop-off recycling sites. Actual weights of recyclables and/or garbage were obtained, as well as information about recycling and garbage behavior, generation, and collection, and socioeconomic and attitude information. This information, in addition to data collected by the operators of the program, was used to determine average participation rates for rural and suburban households by material and for any material and to develop models of participation in recycling individual materials as well as any material for rural and suburban households. Average generation rates for each material and all materials were obtained for rural and suburban households. Generation models were developed for each individual material and all materials for rural and suburban households. For rural households, an average garbage generation rate was obtained and a model of garbage generation was developed. In addition, municipal solid waste diversion rates for rural households were estimated. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate individual willingness to pay for a drop-off recycling program, and a model of the household\u27s willingness to pay response was developed

    Multijurisdictional cooperation in municipal solid waste management

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    This study examines the decision of local governments to conduct municipal solid waste (MSW) planning and management independently or cooperatively. First, the research develops a theoretical framework in which the decision process of local governments may be examined, drawing upon economic theory as well as other social science disciplines. According to the theoretical model developed, a governmental unit first selects optimal levels of choice characteristics, conditioned upon own characteristics, that maximize utility. The unit then compares the resulting optimal utility to utility levels achievable with alternative feasible arrangements for provision of MSW planning and management, to select the feasible arrangement that minimizes the difference from optimal utility. If the optimal feasible strategy involves multijurisdictional cooperation and the same outcome is not selected as optimal by all potential cooperating partners, then the unit must engage in a negotiation process to achieve an outcome that maximizes utility of all participants simultaneously. This theory is then examined using data from Tennessee, where recent legislation required all counties to form either a single or multi-county solid waste region. The legislation also established a minimum service level for MSW services, and required all regions to develop a comprehensive plan for meeting minimum service level restrictions. First, regionalization decisions and the resulting management of MSW are examined through five in-depth case studies of solid waste regions in Tennessee. Results of the case studies indicate that cooperation in the management of MSW is facilitated when potential operational cost savings due to economies of scale in disposal are not only available, but also effectively communicated and widely accepted. Cooperation is also facilitated by a reduction in transaction costs which can be achieved through past cooperative efforts, presence of a cooperation entrepreneur, institutional arrangements that serve as a cooperation cornerstone, the type of bond creating the region, and some private sector influences. Other factors that heavily influence decisions and outcomes are the autonomy risk and political risk associated (or perceived to be associated) with cooperation. Finally, the degree to which a service level constraint or budget constraint is binding influences cooperation decisions. The theory and case studies then contributed toward development of statistical models designed to predict the decision Tennessee counties made in 1991 regarding solid waste region formation. The models showed that multi-county cooperation was more likely to be observed if neighboring counties had a low population, the county and its neighbors were more urban, the county had a large county commission, the county currently managed a small percentage of its generated waste, and the county did not have a Subtitle D landfill or firm plans to construct a Subtitle D landfill. The model predicted the outcome with 72% accuracy, and by far, the most significant influence on the decision was the presence of a Subtitle D landfill

    GENERATION OF RECYCLABLES BY RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

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    Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider ways to reduce the waste stream. Using survey data, models explaining the weight of recyclables generated by households are estimated for paper and glass. Results indicate that households respond to the time cost of recycling paper but not glass. The waste generation models imply total monthly willingness to pay for recycling is $5.78 per household. Waste managers may increase the weight of recycled waste stream with programs which lower perceived time costs of nonrecyclers and improve the efficiency of recyclers.Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy,

    EXPLAINING RURAL HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING

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    Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider waste stream reduction alternatives such as household recycling. Explaining the factors which motivate households to recycle is important to regions where households must bear a large portion of the recycling cost because unit-based garbage disposal fees and curbside recycling are not feasible options. Empirical results indicate that residents are responsive to constraints introduced by the household production technology, such as time costs and storage space, but are not responsive to variables measuring a recycling promotional program. Promotion efforts should switch focus from broader "public good" benefits of recycling to reducing household-level household production constraints.Dropoff recycling, Household recycling participation, Rural regions, Environmental Economics and Policy,

    Exits Among U.S. Burley Tobacco Growers After the End of the Federal Tobacco Program

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    This study explores the relationship between family/farm characteristics and the probability of exiting burley tobacco farming in Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. Following the termination of the federal tobacco program in 2004, 54% of burley tobacco–growing households in Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia exited burley tobacco farming by 2006. Tobacco yield, tobacco farm cash receipts, tobacco price, off-farm employment, and farm size are the most dominant variables discriminating between exiting and surviving tobacco farms. Data for this study came from a mail survey of burley tobacco producers in Tennessee, Virginia, and North Carolina in May 2006.burley tobacco, exit, federal tobacco program, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Financial Economics, Land Economics/Use, Risk and Uncertainty, C25, Q12, Q18,

    CHANGING TOBACCO MARKETS: EFFECTS ON BURLEY TOBACCO FARMS

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    Three representative Tennessee tobacco farms are used to estimate farm-level impacts of (1) program continuation with further quota cuts, and (2) program elimination in 2000. Results indicate that program elimination has more potential to reduce farm income and that larger and more diversified farms are less affected in both scenarios.tobacco, farm-level analysis, representative farms, Tennessee agriculture, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries,
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