56 research outputs found

    A review of current development in natural fiber composites for structural and infrastructure applications

    Get PDF
    Natural fiber composites (NFC) as the name implies is made of natural resources thus possesses environmentally beneficial properties such as biodegradability. With its natural characteristics, NFC is obtaining more attention in recent years in various application including automotive, merchandise, structural and infrastructure. Several studies have shown that NFC can be developed into a load-bearing structural member for applications in structural and infrastructure application. As an engineered material, similar with synthetic fiber composites, the properties of NFC can be tailored to meet certain requirements. The challenge in working with NFC is the large variation in properties and characteristics. The properties of NFC to a large extent influenced by the type of fibers, environmental condition where the plant fibers are sourced and the type of fiber treatments. However, with their unique and wide range of variability, natural fiber composites could emerge as a new alternative engineering material which can substitute the use of synthetic fiber composites

    An investigation on the stiffness of timber sleepers for the design of fibre composite sleepers

    Get PDF
    This paper presents an experimental investigation on timber railway sleepers with a view to select a suitable stiffness and a modulus of elasticity for the design of a fibre composite railway sleeper. Eight full size timber sleepers were tested using a four point bending test arrangement. An overview of existing material for railway sleepers is also presented. Based on the tests, it is concluded that timber sleepers have significant variation in strength and stiffness as can be inferred from the modulus of elasticity (Esleeper) which ranged between approximately 9520 MPa and 27600 MPa. It is desirable to develop a concept fibre composite sleeper within a similar range of modulus of elasticity. Based on the statistical analysis, it is proposed to use the lower tail value that is 12000 MPa as design modulus of elasticity for the fibre composite railway sleeper

    Pengaruh Senam Poco-poco Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol High Density Lipoprotein Darah

    Full text link
    : High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is denser than other types of cholesterol. Blood HDL cholesterol protects the inner wall (endothelium) of blood vessels. Exercise such as Poco-poco dance can increase the HDL cholesterol level. This study aimed to obtainthe the effect of Poco-poco dance on blood HDL cholesterol level. This was an experimental study with one group pre and post test design. Subjects were 25 Pharmacy female students, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Sam Ratulangi University. Subjects were selected by purposive sampling method. Data were analyzed by using paired T test. The results showed that the average of blood HDL cholesterol level of subjects before training was 57,76 mg/dL and increased to 58,44 mg/dL after 4 weeks of training. The statistical analysis showed a p value >0.05. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant increase in HDL cholesterol level after 4 weeks of Poco-poco dance

    Pengaruh Senam Poco-poco Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Low Density Lipoprotein Darah

    Full text link
    : High level of plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations is one of the cause of atherosclerosis that may result in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Exercise can improve plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. A type of exercise, poco-poco, is categorized to the aerobic gymnastics. This study aimed to know the influence of poco-poco to plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. This was an experimental study with one group prestest-posttest design. Samples were 25 female students of 2013 batch Pharmacy study program of Sam Ratulangi University Manado that were chosen with purposive sampling. Samples did poco-poco gymnasticss three times a week for four consecutive weeks. The results showed that after four weeks of poco-poco there was an increase of the average of plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations for 1.120 mg/dl, but this increase was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant influence of doing poco-poco for four weeks to plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations

    Gambaran Histologik Hati Pada Kelinci Yang Diinduksi Lemak Dengan Pemberian Ekstrak Beras Hitam

    Full text link
    : Dyslipidemia is a disorder of fat metabolism which is marked by increase of one or more fractions of fat in the blood. Due to the high rate of dyslipidemia cases, people begin to improve their lifestyle, such as consuming black rice. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a local variety of rice that contains pigments which are different from other types of rice. Black rice extract is beneficial for lowering LDL cholesterol level and significantly increasing HDL cholesterol level besides its antioxidant effect against reactive oxygen species. This was an experimental posttest-only control group design. Subjects were three New Zealand White rabbits, divided into three groups. Group A was fed with standard food for rabbit; group B was fed with standard food for rabbit and fat; group C was fed with standard foot for rabbit, fat, and black rice extract for 28 days. Blood total and LDL cholesterol were examined on the first day and after 28 days of treatment. The three groups were terminated and their liver tissues were processed for histological examination. The histological results were as follows: Group one showed small fat vacuoles around the hepatocyte nuclei; group two showed large fat vacuoles around the hepatocyte nuclei, signet rings, and coalescence of fat vacuoles; group three showed fat vacuoles around the hepatocyte nuclei, a few signet rings without coalescence of fat vacuoles. Conclusion: Black rice extract could reduce fat vacuoles in liver tissue

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

    Get PDF

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

    Get PDF
    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.Peer reviewe
    corecore