130 research outputs found

    Investigating the Transition Region Explosive Events and Their Relationship to Network Jets

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    Recent imaging observations with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograp (IRIS) have revealed prevalent intermittent jets with apparent speeds of 80--250 km~s1^{-1} from the network lanes in the solar transition region (TR). On the other hand, spectroscopic observations of the TR lines have revealed the frequent presence of highly non-Gaussian line profiles with enhanced emission at the line wings, often referred as explosive events (EEs). Using simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic observations from IRIS, we investigate the relationship between EEs and network jets. We first identify EEs from the Si~{\sc{iv}}~1393.755 {\AA} line profiles in our observations, then examine related features in the 1330 {\AA} slit-jaw images. Our analysis suggests that EEs with double peaks or enhancements in both wings appear to be located at either the footpoints of network jets, or transient compact brightenings. These EEs are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection. We also find that EEs with enhancements only at the blue wing are mainly located on network jets, away from the footpoints. These EEs clearly result from the superposition of the high-speed network jets on the TR background. In addition, EEs showing enhancement only at the red wing of the line are often located around the jet footpoints, possibly caused by the superposition of reconnection downflows on the background emission. Moreover, we find some network jets that are not associated with any detectable EEs. Our analysis suggests that some EEs are related to the birth or propagation of network jets, and that others are not connected to network jets.Comment: 9 figures; to appear in Ap

    Magnetic reconnection at the earliest stage of solar flux emergence

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    On 2016 September 20, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observed an active region during its earliest emerging phase for almost 7 hours. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory observed continuous emergence of small-scale magnetic bipoles with a rate of \sim1016^{16} Mx~s1^{-1}. The emergence of magnetic fluxes and interactions between different polarities lead to frequent occurrence of ultraviolet (UV) bursts, which exhibit as intense transient brightenings in the 1400 \AA{} images. In the meantime, discrete small patches with the same magnetic polarity tend to move together and merge, leading to enhancement of the magnetic fields and thus formation of pores (small sunspots) at some locations. The spectra of these UV bursts are characterized by the superposition of several chromospheric absorption lines on the greatly broadened profiles of some emission lines formed at typical transition region temperatures, suggesting heating of the local materials to a few tens of thousands of kelvin in the lower atmosphere by magnetic reconnection. Some bursts reveal blue and red shifts of \sim100~km~s1^{-1} at neighboring pixels, indicating the spatially resolved bidirectional reconnection outflows. Many such bursts appear to be associated with the cancellation of magnetic fluxes with a rate of the order of \sim1015^{15} Mx~s1^{-1}. We also investigate the three-dimensional magnetic field topology through a magneto-hydrostatic model and find that a small fraction of the bursts are associated with bald patches (magnetic dips). Finally, we find that almost all bursts are located in regions of large squashing factor at the height of \sim1 Mm, reinforcing our conclusion that these bursts are produced through reconnection in the lower atmosphere.Comment: ApJ, 10 figure

    Two Solar Tornadoes Observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

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    The barbs or legs of some prominences show an apparent motion of rotation, which are often termed solar tornadoes. It is under debate whether the apparent motion is a real rotating motion, or caused by oscillations or counter-streaming flows. We present analysis results from spectroscopic observations of two tornadoes by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. Each tornado was observed for more than 2.5 hours. Doppler velocities are derived through a single Gaussian fit to the Mg~{\sc{ii}}~k~2796\AA{}~and Si~{\sc{iv}}~1393\AA{}~line profiles. We find coherent and stable red and blue shifts adjacent to each other across the tornado axes, which appears to favor the interpretation of these tornadoes as rotating cool plasmas with temperatures of 10410^4 K-10510^5 K. This interpretation is further supported by simultaneous observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which reveal periodic motions of dark structures in the tornadoes. Our results demonstrate that spectroscopic observations can provide key information to disentangle different physical processes in solar prominences.Comment: 14 figures, accepted by Ap

    Functional characterization of breast cancer using pathway profiles

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    BACKGROUND: The molecular characteristics of human diseases are often represented by a list of genes termed “signature genes”. A significant challenge facing this approach is that of reproducibility: signatures developed on a set of patients may fail to perform well on different sets of patients. As diseases are resulted from perturbed cellular functions, irrespective of the particular genes that contribute to the function, it may be more appropriate to characterize diseases based on these perturbed cellular functions. METHODS: We proposed a profile-based approach to characterize a disease using a binary vector whose elements indicate whether a given function is perturbed based on the enrichment analysis of expression data between normal and tumor tissues. Using breast cancer and its four primary clinically relevant subtypes as examples, this approach is evaluated based on the reproducibility, accuracy and resolution of the resulting pathway profiles. RESULTS: Pathway profiles for breast cancer and its subtypes are constructed based on data obtained from microarray and RNA-Seq data sets provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and an additional microarray data set provided by The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA). An average reproducibility of 68% is achieved between different data sets (TCGA microarray vs. EGA microarray data) and 67% average reproducibility is achieved between different technologies (TCGA microarray vs. TCGA RNA-Seq data). Among the enriched pathways, 74% of them are known to be associated with breast cancer or other cancers. About 40% of the identified pathways are enriched in all four subtypes, with 4, 2, 4, and 7 pathways enriched only in luminal A, luminal B, triple-negative, and HER2+ subtypes, respectively. Comparison of profiles between subtypes, as well as other diseases, shows that luminal A and luminal B subtypes are more similar to the HER2+ subtype than to the triple-negative subtype, and subtypes of breast cancer are more likely to be closer to each other than to other diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that pathway profiles can successfully characterize both common and distinct functional characteristics of four subtypes of breast cancer and other related diseases, with acceptable reproducibility, high accuracy and reasonable resolution

    A Magnetic Reconnection model for Hot Explosions in the Cool Atmosphere of the Sun

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    UV bursts and Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings observed in the low solar atmospheres of emerging flux regions. Observations have discovered the cospatial and cotemporal EBs and UV bursts, and their formation mechanisms are still not clear. The multi-thermal components with a large temperature span in these events challenge our understanding of magnetic reconnection and heating mechanisms in the low solar atmosphere. We have studied magnetic reconnection between the emerging and background magnetic fields. The initial plasma parameters are based on the C7 atmosphere model. After the current sheet with dense photosphere plasma is emerged to 0.50.5 Mm above the solar surface, plasmoid instability appears. The plasmoids collide and coalesce with each other, which makes the plasmas with different densities and temperatures mixed up in the turbulent reconnection region. Therefore, the hot plasmas corresponding to the UV emissions and colder plasmas corresponding to the emissions from other wavelenghts can move together and occur at about the same height. In the meantime, the hot turbulent structures basically concentrate above 0.40.4 Mm, whereas the cool plasmas extend to much lower heights to the bottom of the current sheet. These phenomena are consistent with the observations of Chen et al. 2019, ApJL. The synthesized Si IV line profiles are similar to the observed one in UV bursts, the enhanced wing of the line profiles can extend to about 100100 km s1^{-1}. The differences are significant among the numerical results with different resolutions, which indicate that the realistic magnetic diffusivity is crucial to reveal the fine structures and realistic plasmas heating in these reconnection events. Our results also show that the reconnection heating contributed by ambipolar diffusion in the low chromosphere around the temperature minimum region is not efficient

    Flame-like Ellerman Bombs and Their Connection to Solar UV Bursts

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    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are small-scale intense brightenings in Hα\alpha wing images, which are generally believed to be signatures of magnetic reconnection events around the temperature minimum region of the solar atmosphere. They have a flame-like morphology when observed near the solar limb. Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal another type of small-scale reconnection events, termed UV bursts, in the lower atmosphere. Though previous observations have shown a clear coincidence of some UV bursts and EBs, the exact relationship between these two phenomena is still under debate. We investigate the spatial and temporal relationship between flame-like EBs and UV bursts using joint near-limb observations between the 1.6--meter Goode Solar Telescope (GST) and IRIS. In total 161 EBs have been identified from the GST observations, and 20 of them reveal signatures of UV bursts in the IRIS images. Interestingly, we find that these UV bursts have a tendency to appear at the upper parts of their associated flame-like EBs. The intensity variations of most EB-related UV bursts and their corresponding EBs match well. Our results suggest that these UV bursts and EBs are likely formed at different heights during a common reconnection process.Comment: 5 figures; accepted by ApJ

    An Incremental Approach for Storage and Delivery Planning Problems

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    We consider a logistic planning problem for simultaneous optimization of the storage and the delivery. This problem arises in the consolidate shipment using an intermediate storage in a supply chain, which is typically found in the automobile industry. The vehicles deliver the items from the origin to the destination, while the items can be stored at some warehousing facilities as the intermediate storage during the delivery. The delivery plan is made for each day separately, but the storage at a warehouse may last for more than one day. Therefore, the entire logistic plan should be considered over a certain period for the total optimization. We formulate the storage and delivery problem as a mixed integer programming. Then, we propose a relax-and-fix type heuristic method, which incrementally fixes decision variables until all the variables are fixed to obtain a complete solution. Moreover, a semiapproximate model is introduced to effectively fix the variables. Based on the formulation, the delivery plan can be solved for each day separately. This has the advantage especially in the dynamic situation, where the delivery request is modified from the original request before the actual delivery day. Numerical experiments show that the simultaneous optimization gives the effective storage plan to reduce the total logistic cost, and the proposed heuristics efficiently reduce the computational time and are robust against the dynamic situation

    Solar Ultraviolet Bursts in a Coordinated Observation of IRIS, Hinode and SDO

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    Solar ultraviolet (UV) bursts are small-scale compact brightenings in transition region images. The spectral profiles of transition region lines in these bursts are significantly enhanced and broadened, often with chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni~{\sc{ii}} 1335.203 and 1393.330 {\AA} superimposed. We investigate the properties of several UV bursts using a coordinated observation of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and \textit{Hinode} on 2015 February 7. We have identified 12 UV bursts, and 11 of them reveal small blueshifts of the Ni~{\sc{ii}} absorption lines. However, the Ni~{\sc{ii}} lines in one UV burst exhibit obvious redshifts of \sim20 km s1^{-1}, which appear to be related to the cold plasma downflows observed in the IRIS slit-jaw images. We also examine the three-dimensional magnetic field topology using a magnetohydrostatic model, and find that some UV bursts are associated with magnetic null points or bald patches. In addition, we find that these UV bursts reveal no obvious coronal signatures from the observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board \textit{Hinode}.Comment: will appear in the journal of Science China Technological Science
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